Miguel hernandez poeta

Miguel Hernandez
Miguel Hernandez Gilabert was born on 30 October 1910 in the town of Orihuela, near Murcia, in southeastern Spain, to poor parents. His father, Miguel Hernandez Sanchez, a herdsman and dealer in sheep and goats, took for granted that his son would soon be hard at work helping with the family business. From a very early age the young Miguel was expected to perform menial tasks around the house and stable. A lengthy, enriched education was out of the question, both for economic and socio-cultural reasons; instead of starting school at the usual age, Hernandez was forced for years to shepherd his father's flock. This grueling, solitary experience had a profound impact on him. His work on the farm led him to establish a special bond with nature, and he later drew on that experience in his poetry.

When Hernandez's passion for reading and writing became evident, his father tried hard to discourage such impractical pursuits. However, Hernandez had made a conscious decision to become a poet. Gifted with an ability to versify and a phenomenal memory, he survived a difficult apprenticeship during which, with the help and advice of close friends and mentors, he managed to learn Hispanic literature and culture, particularly the poetry and theater, at the same time mastering a wide variety of styles of poetry from earlier decades and other cultures. Against enormous odds, he broke loose from the severe limitations of his humble beginnings to emerge as one of the greatest and best-loved Spanish poets.

One common thread in the lives of so many of Hernandez's contemporaries is their education, erudition, and worldliness; unlike them, he was rigidly forbidden to indulge in such interests by his father, who saw no use for formal education or for what his son wrote and recited. Throughout most of his youth Hernandez was in conflict with his father over his desire to read and study, and later over his ambition to become a poet. Hernandezs early poems were thus shaped and inspired as much by the numbing routine of his pastoral chores as by the poets whose works he read. His day-to-day chores provided a common motif in poems, such as "En cuclillas, ordeno una cabrita y un sueno" (Squatting on My Heels, I Milk My Goat and My Dream, in Obra completa, 1992), a short poem which illustrates his early predilection for creating visual and auditory metaphors out of the down-to-earth scenes of everyday life. In "Aprendiz de Chivo" (The Apprentice Kid, also in Obra completa) Hernandez depicts the miracle of birth, the awkward yet splendid first moments of a newborn goat as it slowly awakens to the pleasures of its mother's milk and the sheer joy of being alive. Although many of Hernandez's early poems probably have not survived, about forty of them were published for the first time in Obra completa, which includes over one hundred previously unpublished works.

In the years immediately after Hernandez left school, he befriend the Catholic writer Sije (Marin Gutierrez) who was drawn to Hernandez for his poetry and intellect. Sije became Hernandez's mentor and guru, suggesting that he study in great depth the sixteenth-and seventeenth-century Spanish poets and dramatists and teaching him to fashion his verse with particular care for allegory, semantics, and symbols. Hernandezs poem, "Pastoril," which he had written in his beloved orchard, was published in the Pueblo de Orihuela on 13 January 1930; his career as a published poet had begun.

Madrid at the time was the literary and cultural capital of Spain; Hernandez naturally was drawn to it and made his first trip in 1931. His enthusiasm was dispelled by the cool reception he met within the Spanish metropolis. The tension caused in Hernandez by the differences between big-city and country life was to affect him and pervade his poetry at every stage of his life. The butt of mildly unflattering articles, Hernandez returned to Orihuela but not before publishing a poem, "Reloj rustico" (Rustic Clock, now in Obra completa ), in the Gaceta Literaria (1 May 1932). On his way home, however, he was stopped and imprisoned for not having the proper documentationthe first of two such arrests that left indelible impressions on Hernandez. He was obliged to contact his family and friends for funds to get him out of jail, where he remained for several days. He felt that his six months in Madrid had been a disaster; help from the cultural powers had not been forthcoming, nor would it be for years to come.

Back in Orihuela, Hernandez worked menial jobs and wooed the daughter of an officer of the Guardia Civil, Josefina Manresa. Their long and tumultuous courtship would be an inspiration for much of Hernandezs later love poetry. Sije's influence on Hernandez also became especially strong following his return in seeming disgrace from Madrid. Hernandez was hard at work composing his first book, "Poliedros"published as Perito en lunas (Lunar Expert, 1933). Although he had absorbed through his reading the styles and techniques of baroque pastoral poetry, his "lunar" Arcadia was far removed from its aristocratic source. Beneath the artifice of his culteranismo (art for the sake of art) conceits, his poetry abounds with regional themes, rustic flavors, and popular images intimately linked with the common elements of life on the land: wells and irrigation systems; trees and vegetation; bulls and roosters; and palms and snakesproof of Hernandez's deep attachment to the natural world around him, the wellspring of his pantheism.

With the publication of Perito en lunas Hernandez had finally proved himself a full-fledged poet. His career took off rapidly from that point, and his work evolved from the hermetic baroque style of Perito en lunas through the sensual love poems and quasi-religious themes of early versions of El silbo vulnerado (The Injured Whistle, posthumously published in 1949), to the crystal clarity and sexual candor of the sonnets in later versions of El silbo vulnerado and Imagen de tu huella (Image of Your Footprint, published in 1963), which were reworked in Hernandez's first major work, El rayo que no cesa (1936; translated as Unceasing Lightning, 1986).

Hernandez returned to Madrid in March 1934 where he befriended poets like Frederico Garcia Lorca, Pablo Neruda, and Vicente Aleixandre. Drawn deeper and deeper into the circle of poets that favored the Republican government and its socialist views, Hernandez moved further away from Orihuela and Sije's influence. When Sije paid him a visit in Madrid, it was clear that, though they remained close friends, irreconcilable changes had drawn a permanent intellectual barrier between them. Hernandez remained torn between two worlds, between the artificial, decadent city and the pure, Arcadian countryside. In June 1935 Hernandez collaborated on an homage to Neruda which included a warm dedication (collected in Obra completa) and three then-unpublished cantos materiales (material songs) from Residencia en la tierra. His support of Neruda cost him Sijes friendship and he returned to Orihuela emotionally drained; however, the loss also occasioned one of his great poems. In late December 1935, Sije died of pneumonia. Devastated by the news and beset by terrible feelings of guilt, Hernandez turned inward to concentrate and distill his sorrow, composing an elegy to Sije that many critics consider to be one of the finest elegies in the Spanish language. First published in Revista de Occidente on 10 January 1936, the elegy is an earthy evocation of his friendship and love for Sije and of Sije's long-standing influence on Hernandez:

Yo quiero ser llorando el hortelano
de la tierra que ocupas y estercolas,
companero del alma, tan temprano.

Alimentando lluvias, caracolas
y organos mi dolor sin instrumento,
a las desalentadas amapolas

dare tu corazon por alimento.
Tanto dolor se agupa en mi costado
que por doler me duele hasta el aliento.

I want to be the grieving gardener
of the earth you fill and fertilize,
my dearest friend, so soon.

With rain and snails my stifled sorrow
nourishes the organs of your body
and I would feed your heart

the drooping poppies. Pain bunches up
between my ribs till every breath I draw
becomes an aching stitch.

translation by Edwin Honig (from The Unending Lightning, 1990)

Hernandezs style evolved from a tendency toward traditionalism to greater and greater independence of form and imagery. His early preference for the octava and the sonnet and his penchant for la tropologia culterana (culturalist tropology) eventually gave way to the simpler textures and more direct language of the cancion (song) and the romance (ballad), revealing his kinship with Machado and Lorca. This coexistence of popular and sophisticated art, common throughout most of Spanish history, was also typical of Spanish literature in the 1930s.

The culmination of Hernandez's enthusiasm for traditional forms can be found in El rayo que no cesa. These poems were composed over a crucial two-year period in Hernandez's career: 19341935. As such, El rayo que no cesa is a pivotal work in Hernandez's development as a poet. His discovery of love, in the person of Josefina, caused him to search out a richer, yet more restricted, vocabulary, less excessively decorative and more functional. Hernandez still exhibits a love of wordplay, conceits, and occasional verbal and rhetorical excess, but much less so than in earlier works. The influence of the religious eroticism latent in the Song of Songs and de la Cruz's Cantico Espiritual (Spiritual Canticle, 1584) can be felt throughout, as well as echoes of Neruda's Residencia en la tierra and Aleixandre's La destruccion o el amor.

On 18 July 1936 a Spanish military uprising led by Generalissimo Francisco Franco in the North African province of Melilla caused vital Spanish services, such as mail and trains, to come to a stop. Sometime during the next day, Lorca, who ironically had left Madrid to seek the comparative peace and safety of his beloved Andalusia, was captured by the military and killed with some other prisoners near Granada. Such mass executions and other chaotic events threw the country into turmoil and exemplified the wanton death and destruction of the next three years. The Spanish Civil War had a disastrous effect on all aspects of life in the country, particularly those involving culture. Many of the greatest intellectuals and finest artists eventually left the country to live in exile; others, like Lorca, Miguel de Unamuno, and Machado, died at the onset or during the war; and a few others, such as Hernandez, died not long afterward as a direct result of that brutal conflict and the subsequent savage reprisals and executions.

Hernandez soon enrolled in the well-known Fifth Regiment, part of the Republican forces fighting Franco and the Nationalists; he also joined the First Calvary Company of the Peasants' Battalion as a cultural-affairs officer, reading his poetry daily on the radio. He traveled extensively throughout the area, organizing cultural events and doing poetry readings for soldiers on the front lines, or even pitching in where necessary to dig a ditch or defend a position. As more and more war poems flowed from his pen, he slowly approached the status of prime poet of the nation during the war years.

Hernandez and Josefina were finally married in Orihuela on 9 March 1937 in a no-frills civil ceremony attended by close friends Carlos Fenoll and Jesus Poveda. The atmosphere at the wedding was not entirely happy, but Hernandez's post-marital poetry soon took on new tones and colors, full of sensuality and sexuality seemingly fulfilled. Hernandez kept busy working on his poetry during the war, correcting proofs of Viento del pueblo and preparing speeches. When his propaganda unit was shifted to Castuera in Estremadura province, he took time off from his exhausting pace to see Josefina and came down with a severe case of anemia. Hugh Thomas, noted Spanish Civil War historian, mentions the accelerating pace of Hernandez's literary activities during the war years, a pace that inevitably took a heavy toll on the poet's health and required him to rest and recuperate on several occasions.

During the war, Hernandez also took part in the International Writers Congress, held in Madrid and Valencia, and the Fifth Festival of Soviet Theater in Moscow. Attending as one of a group of Spanish intellectuals, the Moscow trip influenced Hernandezs burgeoning dramatic style. However, his commitment to a democratic Spain, and his inability to escape into exile after the triumph of Francos troops, meant that he faced a life of arrest and imprisonment. Sentenced to death at one point, his term was commuted to 30 years. Years of war and struggle had left him weakened, however, and Miguel Hernandez died in prison, of tuberculosis, in 1942.

miguel hernandez poeta
miguel hernandez poeta

miguel hernandez poeta

Poemas de Miguel Hernandez: Poesias y versos famosos en espanol - Blogpoemas.com

Foto de Miguel HernandezMiguel Hernandez nacio el 30 de octubre de 1910 en la pequena localidad de Orihuela, en la provincia de Alicante, en una familia de un modesto agricultor. Miguel paso poco tiempo en la escuela, asistio a la primaria solo dos anos y mas tarde se dedico a la auto-educacion. Cuando el poeta cumplio veinte anos, se publico su primera poesia Pastoril . Un ano mas tarde Hernandez se traslado a la capital de Espana, pero pronto regreso a su patria. En 1933, nacio la primera coleccion de poemas del poeta Perito en lunas (llamada inicialmente Poliedros), despues de la cual Miguel tuvo la oportunidad de viajar por las ciudades y pueblos de Espana, leyendo poesia y vendiendo su libro.

Al llegar a Madrid (1934), conocio a los ya famosos autores, Federico Garcia Lorca, Pablo Neruda, y otros. Su trabajo se encuentra reflejado en la Generacion de 1927, con cuyos representantes fue creativo y amistoso. Muchos de los poemas de Hernandez fueron adaptados a la musica.

El 50 aniversario de la muerte del poeta (1992) fue marcado en Espana por la publicacion de una coleccion en dos volumenes de sus escritos y cartas. La Universidad de Elche lleva su nombre en honor a este conocido poeta y dramaturgo de extraordinaria importancia para la literatura espanola y latinoamericana. Disponibles gratuitamente para leer en linea se encuentran Innumerables obras, poesias y otros materiales del autor.

Los mejores y mas famosos poemas de Miguel Hernandez en la coleccion de poesias en espanol para leer.

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