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Death of Diana, Princess of Wales
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Death of Diana, Princess of WalesFlowers for Princess Diana's Funeral.jpgFlowers left outside Kensington Palace in tribute to Diana, Princess of WalesDate31August 1997LocationPont de l'Alma, Paris, FranceDeathsDiana, Princess of Wales
Dodi Fayed
Henri PaulNon-fatal injuriesTrevor Rees-JonesInquiriesOperation PagetVerdictUnlawful killing

In the early hours of 31 August 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales died in a hospital after being injured in a car crash in a road tunnel in Paris, France. Her partner, Dodi Fayed, and their driver, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. Their bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived with serious injuries.

Media blamed the erratic behaviour of paparazzi following the car, as reported by the BBC contributed to the crash.[1] A French investigation in 1999 found that Paul, who lost control of the vehicle at high speed while intoxicated and under the effects of prescription drugs, was solely responsible for the crash. He was the deputy head of security at the Hotel Ritz and had earlier goaded paparazzi waiting for Diana and Fayed outside the hotel.[2] Anti-depressants and traces of an anti-psychotic in his blood may have worsened Paul's inebriation.[3][4] No evidence was found that paparazzi were near the car when it crashed.[5] The jury at a British inquest in 2008 returned a verdict of unlawful killing through grossly negligent driving by Paul and following vehicles. It was also found that none of the occupants of the car were wearing a seat belt.[6]

Diana was 36 years old.[7] Her death caused an outpouring of worldwide grief worldwide, and her funeral was watched by an estimated 2.5 billion people. The British royal family were criticised in the press for their reaction to Diana's death.

Circumstances

Events preceding the crash

A Mercedes-Benz W140, similar to the one involved in the accident.

On Saturday, 30 August 1997, Diana left Sardinia on a private jet and arrived in Paris with Dodi Fayed, the son of Mohamed Al-Fayed.[8] They had stopped there en route to London, having spent the preceding nine days together on board Mohamed Al-Fayed's yacht Jonikal on the French and Italian Riviera.[9] They had intended to stay there for the night. Mohamed Al-Fayed was and is the owner of the Hotel Ritz Paris. He also owned an apartment in Rue Arsene Houssaye, a short distance from the hotel, just off the Avenue des Champs Elysees.[10]

Henri Paul, the deputy head of security at the Ritz Hotel, had been instructed to drive the hired black 1994 Mercedes-Benz W140 in order to elude the paparazzi;[11] a decoy vehicle left the Ritz first from the main entrance on Place Vendome, attracting a throng of photographers. Diana and Fayed then departed from the hotel's rear entrance,[12] Rue Cambon at around 00:20 on 31 August CEST (22:20 on 30 August UTC), heading for the apartment in Rue Arsene Houssaye. They did this to avoid the nearly 30 photographers waiting in front of the hotel.[12] They were the rear passengers; Trevor Rees-Jones, a member of the Fayed family's personal protection team, was in the (right) front passenger seat.[13] It was believed that Diana and Dodi were not wearing seat belts.[14] After leaving the Rue Cambon and crossing the Place de la Concorde, they drove along Cours la Reine and Cours Albert 1er the embankment road along the right bank of the River Seine into the Place de l'Alma underpass.[15]

The crash

At 00:23, Paul lost control of the vehicle at the entrance to the Pont de l'Alma tunnel. The car struck the right-hand wall and then swerved to the left of the two-lane carriageway before it collided head-on with the 13th pillar that supported the roof.[16] The car was travelling at an estimated speed of 105km/h (65mph).[17] This was just over twice the speed limit in the tunnel which was 50km/h (31mph). It then spun and hit the stone wall of the tunnel backwards, finally coming to a stop. The impact caused substantial damage, particularly to the front half of the vehicle, as there was no guard rail between the pillars to prevent this.[18] Witnesses arriving shortly after the accident reported smoke.[19] Witnesses also reported that photographers on motorcycles "swarmed the Mercedes sedan before it entered the tunnel."[14]

The aftermath

The entrance to the Pont de l'Alma Tunnel, the site where Diana was fatally injured

As the four occupants lay in the wrecked car, the photographers, who had been driving slower and were some distance behind the Mercedes, reached the scene. The photographers were on motorcycles.[12] Some rushed to help, tried to open the doors and help the victims, while some of them took pictures.[20] Airbags were deployed.[21] Police arrived on scene around 10 minutes after the crash at 00:30[20] and an ambulance was on site five minutes after the police, according to witnesses.[21] France Info radio reported that one photographer was beaten by witnesses who were horrified by the scene.[14] Five of the photographers were taken into custody.[19] Later, two others were detained and around 20 rolls of film were taken from the photographers.[14] Police also impounded their vehicles.[14] Firemen also arrived to help remove the victims.[22]

Still conscious, Rees-Jones had suffered multiple serious facial injuries and a head contusion.[23] The front occupants' airbags had functioned normally.[24] The occupants were not wearing seat belts.[a] Diana, who had been sitting in the right rear passenger seat, was still conscious.[20] Critically injured, Diana was reported to murmur repeatedly, "Oh my God," and after the photographers and other helpers were pushed away by police, "Leave me alone."[25] In June 2007, the Channel 4 documentary Diana: The Witnesses in the Tunnel claimed that the first person to touch Diana was Dr. Maillez,[26] who chanced upon the scene. He reported that Diana had no visible injuries but was in shock.[27] Diana was removed from the car at 01:00. She then went into cardiac arrest and following external cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her heart started beating again.[28] She was moved to the SAMU ambulance at 01:18, left the scene at 01:41 and arrived at the Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital at 02:06.[29]

Fayed had been sitting in the left rear passenger seat and was shortly afterwards pronounced dead.[30] Paul was declared dead on removal from the wreckage.[20] Both were taken to the Institut Medico-Legal (IML), the Paris mortuary, not to a hospital.[31] Paul was later found to have a blood alcohol level of 1.75 grams per litre of bloodabout 3.5 times the legal limit in France,[23] (equivalent to about 2.2 times the legal limit in Canada/the U.K./the U.S., for purposes of comparison).

Despite attempts to save her, Diana's internal injuries were too extensive: her heart had been displaced to the right side of the chest, which tore the pulmonary vein and the pericardium. Despite lengthy resuscitation attempts, including internal cardiac massage, she died at 04:00.[32][33] Anesthesiologist Bruno Riou announced her death at 06:00 at a news conference held at the hospital.[19][34]

Later that morning, Jean-Pierre Chevenement (French Minister of the Interior) visited the hospital with French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin.[35] At around 17:00, Diana's former husband, Charles, Prince of Wales, and her two older sisters, Lady Sarah McCorquodale and Lady Jane Fellowes, arrived in Paris.[36] The group visited the hospital along with French President Jacques Chirac and thanked the doctors for trying to save her life.[37] Prince Charles accompanied Diana's body home on Sunday.[38] Her body was taken to the Hammersmith and Fulham mortuary in London for a post-mortem examination later that day.[39]

Initial media reports stated Diana's car had collided with the pillar at 190km/h (120mph), and that the speedometer's needle had jammed at that position.[23] It was later announced the car's speed on collision was about 95110km/h (6070mph). The car was certainly travelling much faster than the speed limit of 50km/h (31mph). In 1999, a French investigation concluded the Mercedes had come into contact with another vehicle (a white Fiat Uno) in the tunnel.[40] The driver of that vehicle has never been conclusively traced, although many believe the driver of the Fiat was Le Van Thanh but the specific vehicle has not been identified.[41][40]

It was remarked by Robin Cook, the British Foreign Secretary, that if the accident had been caused in part by being hounded by paparazzi, it would be "doubly tragic."[12] Diana's brother also blamed tabloid media for her death.[42] An 18-month French judicial investigation concluded in 1999 that the crash was caused by Paul, who lost control at high speed while intoxicated.[43]

Mourning

Members of the public were invited to sign a book of condolence at St. James Palace.[44] All 11,000 light bulbs at Harrods were turned off and not switched on again until after the funeral.[44] Throughout the night, members of the Women's Royal Voluntary Service and the Salvation Army provided support for people queuing along the Mall.[45] More than one million bouquets were left at her London home, Kensington Palace,[46] while at her family's estate of Althorp the public was asked to stop bringing flowers as the volume of people and flowers in the surrounding roads was said to be causing a threat to public safety.[47]

By 10 September, the pile of flowers outside Kensington Gardens was 5 feet (1.5m) deep in places and the bottom layer had started to compost.[48] The people were quiet, queuing patiently to sign the book and leave their gifts. There were a few minor incidents. Fabio Piras, an Italian tourist, was given a one-week prison sentence on 10 September for having taken a teddy bear from the pile. When the sentence was later reduced to a ?100 fine, Piras was punched in the face by a member of the public when he left the court.[49] The next day two Slovakian tourists, Maria Rigolova, a 54-year-old secondary school teacher and Agnesa Sihelska, a 50-year-old communications technician, were each given a 28-day prison sentence for having taken 11 teddy bears and a number of flowers from the pile outside the palace.[50] This was reduced to a fine of ?200 each.[51]

Funeral

Main article: Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales Further information: Althorp Diana grave, memorial, and exhibition

Early on, it was uncertain if it would be a state funeral since Diana had lost her royal status because of her divorce from Prince Charles in 1996.[52]

Diana's death was met with extraordinary public expressions of grief, and her funeral at Westminster Abbey on 6 September drew an estimated 3million mourners and onlookers in London,[53][54] and worldwide television coverage watched by 2.5billion people.[55] It was aired to 200 countries in 44 languages.[56] Outside the Abbey and in Hyde Park crowds watched and listened to proceedings on large outdoor screens and speakers as guests filed in, including representatives of the many charities of which Diana was patron. Attendants included US First Lady Hillary Clinton, Bernadette Chirac, wife of the French President, Jacques Chirac and other celebrities, including Italian tenor Luciano Pavarotti and friends of Diana, George Michael and Elton John.[25][57] John performed a rewritten version of his song "Candle in the Wind" that was dedicated to her, known as "Goodbye England's Rose".[58] Protocol was disregarded when the guests applauded the speech by Diana's younger brother Earl Spencer, who strongly criticised the press and indirectly criticised the Royal Family for their treatment of her.[59] The funeral is estimated to have been watched by 31.5 million viewers in Britain. Precise calculation of the worldwide audience is not possible, but estimated at around 2.5 billion.[60]

After the end of the ceremony, the coffin was driven to Althorp in a Daimler hearse.[61] Mourners cast flowers at the funeral procession for almost the entire length of its journey and vehicles even stopped on the opposite carriageway of the M1 motorway as the cars passed.[62]

In a private ceremony, Diana was buried on an island in the middle of a lake called The Oval, which is part of the Pleasure Garden at Althorp.[63] In her coffin, she wears a black Catherine Walker dress and black tights, and is holding a rosary in her hands. The rosary had been a gift from Mother Teresa of Calcutta, a confidante of Diana, who had died the day before her funeral. A visitors' centre is open during summer months, with an exhibition about her and a walk around the lake. All profits are donated to the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund.[64]

Reactions

Some criticised the reaction to Diana's death at the time as being "hysterical" and "irrational". As early as 1998, philosopher Anthony O'Hear identified the mourning as a defining point in the "sentimentalisation of Britain", a media-fuelled phenomenon where image and reality become blurred.[65] Oasis bandleader Noel Gallagher responded to the reaction with "The woman's dead. Shut up. Get over it".[66] These criticisms were repeated on the 10th anniversary, when journalist Jonathan Freedland expressed the opinion that "It has become an embarrassing memory, like a mawkish, self-pitying teenage entry in a diary ... we cringe to think about it." In 2010, Theodore Dalrymple suggested "sentimentality, both spontaneous and generated by the exaggerated attention of the media, that was necessary to turn the death of the princess into an event of such magnitude thus served a political purpose, one that was inherently dishonest in a way that parallels the dishonesty that lies behind much sentimentality itself".[67] Some cultural analysts disagreed. Sociologist Deborah Steinberg pointed out that many Britons associated Diana not with the Royal Family but with social change and a more liberal society: "I don't think it was hysteria, the loss of a public figure can be a touchstone for other issues."[68] Carol Wallace of People Magazine said that the fascination with Diana's death had to do with "the fairy tale failing to end happily twice, first when she got divorced and now that she died."[69]

Royal family

The Queen expressed her dismay at Diana's death when she found out.[70] Prince Charles woke his sons before dawn to share the news.[71] On Sunday morning after Diana's death, the Queen and Princes Charles, William and Harry all wore black to church services at Balmoral Castle.[72] Charles and his sons returned to London on Friday, 5 September.[73] The Queen, who returned to London from Balmoral, agreed to a television broadcast to the nation.[74]

The Royal Family was criticised for a rigid adherence to protocol, and their efforts to protect the privacy of Diana's grieving sons was interpreted as a lack of compassion.[75] In particular, the refusal of Buckingham Palace to fly the Royal Standard at half-mast provoked angry headlines in newspapers.[75][76] "Where is our Queen? Where is her Flag?" asked The Sun.[74] The Palace's stance was one of royal protocol: no flag could fly over Buckingham Palace, as the Royal Standard is only flown when the Queen is in residence, and the Queen was then in Scotland. The Royal Standard never flies at half-mast as it is the Sovereign's flag and there is never an interregnum or vacancy in the monarchy, as the new monarch immediately succeeds his or her predecessor. Finally, as a compromise, the Union Flag was flown at half-mast as the Queen left for Westminster Abbey on the day of the funeral.[74] This set a precedent, and Buckingham Palace has subsequently flown the Union Flag when the Queen is not in residence.[77] A rift between Prince Charles and the Queen's private secretary Sir Robert Fellowes (Diana's brother-in-law) was reported in the media over what the nature of the Princess' funeral should be with Charles demanding a public funeral and Fellowes supporting the Queen's idea of a private one.[78] The Palace later issued a statement denying such rumours.[78]

Prince Harry said in 2017 that the death of his mother caused severe depression and grief.[79] Prince William was 15 and Harry was 12 when Diana died.[80]

Politicians' reactions

">File:President Clinton's Remarks on Death of Princess Diana (1997).webmPlay media President Bill Clinton's remarks on Diana's death

British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, said that he "felt utterly devastated by the death of the Princess."[52] President Bill Clinton said that he and his wife, Hillary Clinton were "profoundly saddened" when they found out about her death.[19] Kofi Annan, the United Nations Secretary-General said that her death "has robbed the world of a consistent and committed voice for the improvement of the lives of suffering children worldwide."[72] In Australia, the Deputy Prime Minister, Tim Fischer, condemned the paparazzi for their overzealous coverage of Diana.[81] Russian President Boris Yeltsin praised Diana's charity work in a statement saying "All know of Princess Diana's big contribution to charitable work, and not only in Great Britain".[82][83] Among other politicians who sent messages of condolences were South African President Nelson Mandela, Australian Prime Minister John Howard, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, New Zealand Prime Minister Jim Bolger, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[82]

Public reactions

In London, thousands of people carried bouquets and stood outside of Buckingham Palace after the news of her death.[72] People started bringing flowers within an hour after the news was shared.[70] The BBC flew its flags at half-mast.[72] Both radio and television aired the British national anthem, "God Save the Queen," in response to Diana's death, as is precedent for the death of a member of the Royal Family.[70]

People in the United States were shocked at her death.[84] In Paris, thousands of people visited the site of the crash and the hospital where Diana died.[85] People brought flowers and also attempted to visit the Hotel Ritz, as well.[85] In Bosnia, a land-mine survivor, Jasminko Bjelic, who had met Diana only three weeks earlier, said, "She was our friend."[72] Following her death many celebrities including actors and singers blamed the paparazzi and condemned their reckless behavior.[86][87]

During the four weeks following her funeral, the suicide rate in England and Wales rose by 17% and cases of deliberate self-harm by 44.3% compared with the average for that period in the four previous years. Researchers suggest that this was caused by the "identification" effect, as the greatest increase in suicides was by people most similar to Diana: women aged 25 to 44, whose suicide rate increased by over 45%.[88] Another research showed that 50% of Britons and 27% of Americans were deeply affected by her death as if someone they knew had died. It also concluded that in general women were more affected than men in both of the countries.[89] The same research showed that Diana's "charitable endeavors" and "ability to identify with ordinary people" were among the main factors that caused her to be admired and respected by the people.[89] In the weeks after her death counselling services reported an increase in the number of phone calls by the people who were seeking help due to grief or distress.[90]

The national grieving for Diana had economic effects. In the short term, the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR) estimated that retail sales dropped 1% that week. Traffic congestion in central London as crowds went to the palaces to pay homage likewise adversely affected productivity, and the CEBR estimated that would cost businesses ?200 million, or a total loss of 0.1% of gross domestic product for the third quarter of 1997. However, in the long run the CEBR expected that to be offset by increased tourism and memorabilia sales.[91]

Memorials

Further information: Diana, Princess of Wales Memorials The Flame of Liberty, the unofficial Diana memorial in Paris, France, the day after the 20th anniversary of her death. The ground is covered with flowers and other tributes, and the chain fence covered with love locks.

In the years after her death, interest in the life of Diana has remained high. As a temporary memorial, the public co-opted the Flamme de la Liberte (Flame of Liberty), a monument near the Alma Tunnel related to the French donation of the Statue of Liberty to the United States. The messages of condolence have since been removed and its use as a Diana memorial has discontinued, though visitors still leave messages in her memory. A permanent memorial, the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain, was opened by the Queen in Hyde Park in London on 6 July 2004.[92]

Inquests

Further information: Operation Paget

Under English law, an inquest is required in cases of sudden or unexplained death.[93][94] A French judicial investigation had already been carried out but the 6,000-page report was never published.[95] On 6 January 2004, six years after her death, an inquest into the deaths of Diana and Fayed opened in London held by Michael Burgess, the coroner of the Queen's household.[94] The coroner asked the Metropolitan Police Commissioner, Sir John Stevens, to make inquiries, in response to speculation that the deaths were not an accident.[94][96] The police investigation reported its findings in Operation Paget in December 2006.[97]

In January 2006, Lord Stevens explained in an interview on GMTV that the case is substantially more complex than once thought. The Sunday Times wrote on 29 January 2006 that agents of the British secret service were cross-examined because they were in Paris at the time of the crash. It was suggested in many journals that these agents might have exchanged the blood test of the driver with another blood sample (although no evidence for this has been forthcoming).[98][99]

The inquests into the deaths of Diana and Fayed opened on 8 January 2007, with Dame Elizabeth Butler-Sloss acting as Deputy Coroner of the Queen's Household for the Diana inquest and Assistant Deputy Coroner for Surrey in relation to the Fayed inquest. Butler-Sloss originally intended to sit without a jury;[100] this decision was later overturned by the High Court,[101] as well as the jurisdiction of the Coroner of the Queen's Household. On 24 April 2007, Butler-Sloss stepped down, saying she lacked the experience required to deal with an inquest with a jury.[102] The role of Coroner for the inquests was transferred to Lord Justice Scott Baker, who formally took up the role on 13 June as Coroner for Inner West London.[103]

On 27 July 2007, Baker, following representations for the lawyers of the interested parties, issued a list of issues likely to be raised at the inquest, many of which had been dealt with in great detail by Operation Paget:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}
Whether driver error on the part of Henri Paul caused or contributed to the cause of the collision Whether Henri Paul's ability to drive was impaired through drink or drugs Whether a Fiat Uno or any other vehicle caused or contributed to the collision Whether the actions of the Paparazzi caused or contributed to the cause of the collision Whether the road/tunnel layout and construction were inherently dangerous and, if so, whether this contributed to the collision Whether any bright/flashing lights contributed to or caused the collision and, if so, their source Whose decision it was that the Princess of Wales and Dodi Al Fayed should leave from the rear entrance to the Ritz and that Henri Paul should drive the vehicle Henri Paul's movements between 7 and 10pm on 30 August 1997 The explanation for the money in Henri Paul's possession on 30 August 1997 and in his bank account Whether Andanson was in Paris on the night of the collision Whether Diana's life would have been saved if she had reached hospital sooner or if her medical treatment had been different Whether Diana was pregnant Whether Diana and Dodi Al Fayed were about to announce their engagement Whether and, if so in what circumstances, the Princess of Wales feared for her life The circumstances relating to the purchase of the ring The circumstances in which Diana's body was embalmed Whether the evidence of Tomlinson throws any light on the collision Whether the British or any other security services had any involvement in the collision Whether there was anything sinister about (i) the Cherruault burglary or (ii) the disturbance at the Big Pictures agency Whether correspondence belonging to the Princess of Wales (including some from Prince Philip) has disappeared, and if so the circumstances.[104]

The inquests officially began on 2 October 2007 with the swearing of a jury of six women and five men. Scott Baker delivered a lengthy opening statement giving general instructions to the jury and introducing the evidence.[105] The BBC reported that Mohamed Al-Fayed, having earlier reiterated his claim that his son and Diana were murdered by the Royal Family, immediately criticised the opening statement as biased.[106]

The inquest heard evidence from people connected with Diana and the events leading to her death, including Paul Burrell, Mohamed Al-Fayed, her stepmother, the survivor of the crash, and the former head of MI5.[107]

Wikinews has related news: Princess Diana jury returns verdict of "unlawful killing"

Scott Baker began his summing up to the jury on 31 March 2008.[108] He opened by telling the jury "no-one except you and I and, I think, the gentleman in the public gallery with Diana and Fayed painted on his forehead sat through every word of evidence" and concluded that there was "not a shred of evidence" that Diana's death had been ordered by the Duke of Edinburgh or organised by the security services.[109] Lord Justice Scott Baker concluded his summing up on Wednesday, 2 April 2008.[110] After summing up, the jury retired to consider five verdicts, namely unlawful killing by the negligence of either or both the following vehicles or Paul; accidental death or an open verdict.[108] The jury decided on 7 April 2008 that Diana had been unlawfully killed by the following vehicles.[111][112] Princes William and Harry released a statement in which they said that they "agree with their verdicts and are both hugely grateful."[113] Mohamed Al Fayed also said that he would accept the verdict and "abandon his 10-year campaign to prove that Diana and Dodi were murdered in a conspiracy".[114]

The cost of the inquiry exceeded ?12.5million, the coroner's inquest cost ?4.5million; a further ?8million was spent on the Metropolitan Police investigation. It lasted 6 months and heard 250 witnesses, with the cost heavily criticised in the media.[115]

Related lawsuits

Nine photographers who had been following Diana and Dodi in 1997, were charged with manslaughter in France.[116] France's "highest court" dropped the charges in 2002.[116]

Three photographers who took pictures of the aftermath of the crash on 31 August 1997 had their photographs confiscated and were tried for invasion of privacy for taking pictures through the open door of the crashed car.[116][117] The photographers, who were part of the "paparazzi" were acquitted in 2003.[116]

Conspiracy theories

Main article: Death of Diana, Princess of Wales conspiracy theories

Although the initial French investigation found that Diana had died as a result of an accident, several conspiracy theories have been raised.[118] Since February 1998, Fayed's father, Mohamed Al-Fayed (the owner of the Hotel Ritz, where Paul worked, and thus potentially liable for wrongful death liability) has claimed that the crash was a result of a conspiracy,[119] and later contended that the crash was orchestrated by MI6 on the instructions of the Royal Family.[120] His claims were dismissed by a French judicial investigation[3] and by Operation Paget, a Metropolitan Police Service inquiry that concluded in 2006.[121] An inquest headed by Lord Justice Scott Baker into the deaths of Diana and Fayed began at the Royal Courts of Justice, London, on 2 October 2007, a continuation of the inquest that began in 2004.[102] On 7 April 2008, the jury concluded that Diana and Fayed were the victims of an "unlawful killing" by the "grossly negligent" chauffeur Paul and the drivers of the following vehicles.[122] Additional factors were "the impairment of the judgment of the driver of the Mercedes through alcohol" and "the death of the deceased was caused or contributed to by the fact that the deceased was not wearing a seat belt, the fact that the Mercedes struck the pillar in the Alma Tunnel rather than colliding with something else".[111]

On 17 August 2013, Scotland Yard revealed that they were examining the credibility of information from a source that alleged that Diana was murdered by a member of the British military.[123][124]

In the media

A special After Dark television discussion - "After Diana" - broadcast on Channel 4 on 13 September 1997

Actor George Clooney publicly lambasted several tabloids and paparazzi agencies following Diana's death. A few of the tabloids boycotted Clooney following the outburst, stating that he "owed a fair portion of his celebrity" to the tabloids and photo agencies in question.[125]

Diana was ranked third in the 2002 Great Britons poll sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the British public, after Sir Winston Churchill (1st) (a distant cousin), and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (2nd), just above Charles Darwin (4th), William Shakespeare (5th), and Isaac Newton (6th). That same year, another British poll named Diana's death as the most important event in the country's last 100 years.[126] Historian Nick Barrett criticised this outcome as being "a pretty shocking result".[127]

Later in 2004, US TV network CBS showed pictures of the crash scene in one of its programmes which were "part of a 4,000-page French government report." It showed an intact rear side and centre section of the Mercedes, including one of an unbloodied Diana with no outward injuries crouched on the rear floor with her back to the right passenger seatthe right rear door is fully open. The release of these pictures were poorly received in the UK, where it was felt that the privacy of Diana was being infringed.[128] Buckingham Palace, UK Prime Minister and Diana's brother condemned the action, while CBS defended its decision saying that the pictures "are placed in journalistic context - an examination of the medical treatment given to Princess Diana just after the crash."[129]

On 13 July 2006, Italian magazine Chi published photographs that showed Diana amid the wreckage of the car crash;[130] the photos were released despite an unofficial blackout on such photographs being published.[131][b] The editor of Chi defended his decision by saying he published the photographs simply because they had not been previously seen, and he felt the images were not disrespectful to the memory of Diana.[131]

The British newspaper The Daily Express has been criticised for continued and sustained coverage of Princess Diana following her death. A 2006 report in The Guardian showed that the newspaper had mentioned her in numerous recent news stories, with headlines including "Perhaps Diana should have worn seatbelt", "Diana inquiry chief's laptop secrets stolen", "?250,000 a year bill to run Diana fountain" and "Diana seatbelt sabotage probe".[132]

Internet coverage

Diana's death occurred at a time when Internet use in the developed world was booming, and several national newspapers and at least one British regional newspaper had already launched online news services. BBC News had set up online coverage of the general election earlier in 1997[133] and as a result of the widespread public and media attention that Diana's death resulted in, BBC News swiftly created a website featuring news coverage of Diana's death and the events that followed it. Diana's death helped BBC News officials realise how important online news services were becoming, and a full online news service was launched on 4 November that year, alongside the launch of the BBC's rolling news channel BBC News 24 on 9 November.[134]

See also

  • Concert for Diana, 2007 rock concert to commemorate Diana
  • Diana: Last Days of a Princess, 2007 television docudrama
  • Princess Diana's Revenge, 2006 novel that engages with conspiracy theories relating to Diana's death
  • The Little White Car, 2004 novel based around the mystery Fiat Uno
  • The Queen, 2006 film about the Royal Family's reaction to Diana's death
  • The Murder of Princess Diana, 2007 book disputing the official version of events
  • The Murder of Princess Diana, 2007 Lifetime Movies film, a fictionalised adaption of the book of the same name
  • Unlawful Killing, 2011 documentary film
  • List of people who died in traffic collisions

References

Notes

^ Although there are conflicting reports (such as BBC and CNN), the investigation Operation Paget report notes "Operation Paget's view is that none of the seat belts were being worn at the time of the impact, including that of Trevor Rees-Jones." (Page 421) [1]. ^ The photographs, taken minutes after the accident, show her slumped in the back seat while a paramedic attempts to fit an oxygen mask over her face.

Citations

^ "The Princess and The Press"..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ Director: David Bartlett, Executive Producer: David Upshal. "The Coronation of Elizabeth II/The Death of Diana". Days That Shook the World. ^ a b Nundy, Julian; Graves, David. "Diana crash caused by chauffeur, says report". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2002. ^ Barbour, Alan D. "Synopsis of Autopsy Findings". Retrieved 15 August 2010. ^ Martyn Gregory "Stranded on Planet Fayed", The Spectator, 27 June 2007 ^ "Diana jury blames paparazzi and Henri Paul for her 'unlawful killing'". Daily Telegraph. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2013. ^ Carla B. Johnston (1998). Global News Access: The Impact of New Communications Technologies. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.1. ISBN978-0-275-95774-2. ^ Merrin, William (1999). "Crash, bang, wallop! What a picture! The death of Diana and the media". Mortality. 4 (1): 4162. doi:10.1080/713685965. ^ Cohen 2005, pp.47,51. ^ Cohen 2005, p.277. ^ "Timeline: How Diana died". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2008. ^ a b c d "Car Crash Kills Princess Diana". 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Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ Vitez, Michael (1 September 1997). "Strong Bond With Mother May Help Young Princes Cope With Her Death". Daily Record. Retrieved 30 August 2017 via Newspapers.com. ^ Middleton, Karen (2 September 1997). "Australian Leaders Condemn Intrusion Into Private Life". The Age. Retrieved 31 August 2017 via Newspapers.com. ^ a b "World Reaction to Diana's Death". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2018. ^ Shultz, Cara Lynn; Pearl, Diana (23 June 2011). "Princess Diana and the Causes Close to Her Heart". People. Retrieved 3 March 2018. ^ Fasnacht, Don (31 August 1997). "Shock Sets in Locally as News Spreads". Palladium-Item. Retrieved 30 August 2017 via Newspapers.com. ^ a b Swardson, Anne; Trueheart, Charles (1 September 1997). "Mourners in Paris Flock to the Scenes of Diana's Last Hours". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 30 August 2017 via Newspapers.com. ^ "Princess's Death Overshadows Music Awards". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2018. ^ Bauder, Dave (31 August 1997). "Actor Decries Press Tactics". Tallahassee Democrat. Retrieved 30 August 2017 via Newspapers.com. ^ Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise; Simkin, Sue; Jusczcak, Edmund; Appleby, Louise; McDonnell, Ros; Amos, Tim; Kiernan, Katy; Parrott, Hilary (November 2000). "Effect of death of Diana, princess of Wales on suicide and deliberate self-harm". British Journal of Psychiatry. 177 (5): 463466. doi:10.1192/bjp.177.5.463. PMID11060002. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ a b Saad, Lydia (30 August 2017). "Gallup Vault: Diana's Death Was Personal for Many". Gallup. Retrieved 22 February 2018. ^ "A Nation's Loss". BBC. Retrieved 3 March 2018. ^ Marks, Kathy (7 September 1997). "Diana 1961-1997: The legacy - Death to affect British economy". The Independent. Retrieved 24 October 2017. ^ "Diana Memorial Fountain". The Royal Parks. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013. ^ "Coroners, post-mortems and inquests". Directgov. Retrieved 8 June 2010. ^ a b c Sancton, Tom (1 October 2004). "The Diana Mysteries". Vanities. Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ "Diana and Dodi inquests announced". BBC. 29 August 2003. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "Diana crash investigation ordered". BBC. 6 January 2004. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "Lord Stevens report: Claims and conclusions". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ Leppard, David (29 January 2006). "Doubts cast over blood samples in Diana inquiry". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010. ^ "The Diana Investigation: What Lord Stevens Really Said". The Royalist. 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 5 July 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006. ^ Lee Glendinning (15 January 2007). "No jury for Diana inquest". The Times. London. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ "Diana inquest to be heard by jury". BBC News. 2 March 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ a b "Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed: FAQs". Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Judicial Communications Office. 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ "Timeline: The Diana inquiries". The Guardian. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ "Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed: Pre-inquest Hearing 27July 2007 List of Likely Issues". Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Judicial Communications Office. 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ "Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed: Hearing transcript 2October 2007 Morning". Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Judicial Communications Office. 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2010. ^ "BBC Report of First Day of Inquests, see video report with Nicholas Witchell". BBC News. 2 October 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2010. ^ McClatchey, Caroline (18 February 2008). "Al Fayed gets his 'moment' in court". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2010. ^ a b "Duke 'did not order death of Diana'". BBC News. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2010. ^ "Hearing transcripts: 2April2008 Morning session". Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Judicial Communications Office. 31 March 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009. ^ "Hearing transcripts: 4April2008 Morning session". Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Judicial Communications Office. 2 April 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2009. ^ a b "Hearing transcripts: 7April 2008 Verdict of the jury". Judicial Communications Office. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2010. ^ "Princess Diana unlawfully killed". BBC News. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. ^ "Princes welcome inquest verdicts". BBC. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "Al Fayed abandons Diana campaign". BBC. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "Diana inquiry costs exceed ?12m". BBC News. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. ^ a b c d Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (28 November 2003). "Diana Crash Photogs Acquitted". CBS. Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ "Diana paparazzi trio face retrial". BBC. 13 April 2005. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "The theory about conspiracies". BBC. 6 January 2004. Retrieved 29 May 2018. ^ "Diana crash was a conspiracy Al Fayed". BBC News. 12 February 1998. Retrieved 5 August 2008. ^ "Point-by-point: Al Fayed's claims". BBC News. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. ^ "Diana death a 'tragic accident'". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2008. ^ Rayner, Gordon (7 April 2008). "Diana jury blames paparazzi and Henri Paul for her 'unlawful killing'". Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 October 2013. ^ Addison, Stephen (17 August 2013). "British police studying new information on Princess Diana death". Reuters. London. Retrieved 18 August 2013. ^ Michael Pearson; Atika Shubert (17 August 2013). "Newly revealed conspiracy claim in Princess Diana death sparks talk". CNN. Retrieved 18 August 2013. ^ Richard Zoglin (24 June 2001). "Hey, wanna buy some pix?". TIME. Retrieved 22 October 2007. ^ Almond, Peter (27 August 2002). "Poll queries British sense of history". United Press International. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012. ^ "Rue Britannia: Diana's death tops poll". The Washington Times. Washington, D.C. 31 August 2002. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012. ^ "Spencer 'sickened' by Diana pictures". The Guardian. 22 April 2004. Retrieved 30 August 2017. ^ "Family's shock over Diana images". BBC. 22 April 2004. 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Bibliography

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  • Cohen, David (2005). Diana: Death of a Goddess. Random House. ISBN978-0-099-47134-9.
  • Gregory, Martyn (1999). Diana: The Last Days. UK: Virgin. ISBN978-0-7535-1162-6.
  • Mccleod, Scott; Sancton, Thomas (1998). Death of a Princess. UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN978-0-297-84231-6.
  • John Stevens, Baron Stevens of Kirkwhelpington (2006). The Operation Paget inquiry report into the allegation of conspiracy to murder: Diana, Princess of Wales and Emad El Din Mohamed Abdel Moneim Fayed (PDF). London: Metropolitan Police Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2007.
  • Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. London: Harper Collins. ISBN978-0-00-255900-3.
  • Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. London: HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-00-710215-0.
  • Rees-Jones, Trevor; Moira Johnston (2000). The Bodyguard's Story: Diana, the Crash, and the Sole Survivor. London: Little, Brown. ISBN978-0-316-85508-2.
  • Simmons, Simone; Ingrid Seward (2005). Diana: The Last Word. London: Orion. ISBN978-0-7528-6875-2.
  • Duncan Fallowell, How To Disappear, ch.5, reportage account of Princess Diana's funeral (London, 2011)

External links

  • BBC's full coverage
  • Washington Post's full coverage
  • Operation Paget full report
  • Princess Diana dies in Paris crash BBC On This Day archive
  • Princess Diana driver was 'drunk and speeding' BBC On This Day archive
  • The life and poignant death of Diana's driver The Times online article
  • Official Website of the Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales, and Dodi Fayed
  • Timeline: How Diana died - BBC
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Diana, Princess of WalesTitles
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Popular cultureBooks
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Film and
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Coordinates: 4851?51.7?N 218?06.8?E? / ?48.864361N 2.301889E[1]

^ "Plan of Alma Tunnel" (PDF). Coroner's Inquests into the Deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed. Computer Aided Modelling Bureau, Metropolitan Police Service. November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death_of_Diana,_Princess_of_Wales&oldid=935271749"
princess diana crash picture
This Is What Happened to the Only Survivor of Princess Diana's Car Accident
This Is What Happened to the Only Survivor of Princess Diana's Car Accident Heptagon/Shutterstock


It's a miracle that Trevor Rees-Jones made it out alive.

Half past midnight on August 31, 1997, a black Mercedes crashed into a concrete pillar outside the Pont de lAlma tunnel in Paris. The world mourned the loss of Princess Diana in the wake of the crash, but its easy to forget that she wasnt the only victim. Driver Henri Paul and Dianas boyfriend, Dodi Fayed, also lost their lives that night. Only one passenger came out alive: Trevor Rees-Jones, Fayeds bodyguard.

In the front passenger seat of the car, Rees (who later dropped Jones from his name) had the protection of an airbag, though like the other passengers, he wasnt wearing a seatbelt. Still, he didnt come out unscathed. His face was crushed beyond recognition, the bones turned to powder. It took 150 pieces of titanium to reconstruct his face, and he was put into a coma for ten days as doctors worked on that surgery, plus a broken wrist and chest injuries. It was a miracle he survived. Dont miss these moving photos of Kensington Palace after Princess Dianas death.

In the wake of the crash, rumors and conspiracy theories began to emerge about why the accident happened and whether it could have been preventedand Rees wasnt immune from the finger-pointing. Critics argued he shouldnt have let a supposedly visibly drunk Paul drive; he should have insisted Diana and Fayed wear seatbelts; he should have told Paul to slow down. Rees himself had little recollection of the fateful nights events, the head trauma having caused amnesia. Meanwhile, Fayeds father insisted Rees was lying about memory loss to avoid blame. Check out these other 10 conspiracy theories about Princess Dianas death.

Given the strain with Fayeds father after the crash, Rees quit his job with the family the year after the accident. He moved back to Shropshire county with his mom and step-father, working at a friends sportswear store.

At first, Rees kept the few memories he had of the tragedy to himself. To this day, hes given few interviews, though he did publish a book in 2000, The Bodyguards Story: Diana, the Crash, and the Sole Survivor, putting his side on the record once and for all. One of his few recollections of that night was a womans voice (presumably Dianas) moaning Dodi, though he couldnt say for sure if it was a real or false memory. Most of the reported ?1 million ($1.5 million) he made from the book deal went toward legal fees for lawsuits led by Fayeds dad. In the 2008 inquest of Dianas death, though, it was concluded that Pauls drunk driving and speedingnot actions by Rees, who police said was telling the truthwere to blame for the accident.

Rees later worked in Iraq, where he was living during the inquest, but he and his wife are reportedly now back in Shropshire, where he works as a security consultant and plays rugby with a local team. Its now back to a quiet lifejust the way he wanted it. Find out about the secrets about Princess Diana no one knew until after her death.



Diana, Princess of Wales
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"Diana Spencer", "Lady Di", "People's Princess", and "Princess Diana" redirect here. For other uses, see Diana Spencer (disambiguation), Lady Di (disambiguation), People's Princess (disambiguation), and Princess Diana (disambiguation).

DianaPrincess of Wales (more)Diana smilingDiana in June 1997BornDiana Frances Spencer
1 July 1961
Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, England, United KingdomDied31 August 1997 (aged36)
Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris, FranceBurial6 September 1997
Althorp, Northamptonshire, England, United KingdomSpouseCharles, Prince of Wales
(m.1981; div.1996)Issue
  • Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
  • Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex
House
  • Spencer (by birth)
  • Windsor (by marriage)
FatherJohn Spencer, 8th Earl SpencerMotherFrances Shand KyddSignatureDiana's signature

Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 31 August 1997) was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and the mother of Prince William and Prince Harry. Diana's activism and glamour made her an international icon and earned her an enduring popularity as well as an unprecedented public scrutiny, exacerbated by her tumultuous private life.

Diana was born into the British nobility and grew up close to the royal family on their Sandringham estate. The youngest daughter of the 8th Earl Spencer and Frances Shand Kydd, she was strongly affected by their divorce in 1967. She did not distinguish herself academically, but was talented in music, dance, and sports. In 1978, she moved to London, where she lived with flatmates and took on various low-paying jobs.

Diana came to prominence in 1981 upon her engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, after a brief courtship. Their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral in 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, a role in which she was enthusiastically received by the public. The couple had two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. Diana's marriage to Charles, however, suffered due to their incompatibility and extramarital affairs. The couple separated in 1992, soon after the breakdown of their relationship became public knowledge. The details of their marital difficulties became increasingly publicised, and the marriage ended in divorce in 1996.

As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions across the Commonwealth realms. She was celebrated in the media for her unconventional approach to charity work. Her patronages initially centered on children and youth but she later became known for her involvement with AIDS patients and campaign for the removal of landmines. She also raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with cancer and mental illness. As princess, Diana was initially noted for her shyness, but her charisma and friendliness endeared her to the public and helped her reputation survive the acrimonious collapse of her marriage. Considered to be very photogenic, she was a leader of fashion in the 1980s and 1990s. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel in 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Her legacy has had a deep impact on the royal family and British society.

Early life

Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961 at Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk.[1] She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp (19241992), and Frances Spencer, Viscountess Althorp (nee Roche; 19362004).[2] The Spencer family has been closely allied with the British royal family for several generations;[3] Diana's grandmothers, Cynthia Spencer, Countess Spencer and Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy, had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[4] The Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, and no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt who was also a prospective Princess of Wales.[5]

On 30 August 1961,[6] Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham.[5] She grew up with three siblings: Sarah, Jane, and Charles.[7] Her infant brother, John, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born.[8] The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, and Lady Althorp was reportedly sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem".[5] The experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and probably the root of their divorce because I don't think they ever got over it."[5] Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate.[9] The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II. The royal family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward.[10]

Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced.[11] Her mother later began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969.[12] Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Lady Fermoy.[13] In 1976, Lord Althorp married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth.[14] Diana's relationship with her stepmother was particularly bad.[15] She resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", and on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs".[15] She later described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing".[16] Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father later inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire.[17]

Education and career

Diana was initially home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen.[18] She began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton, Norfolk, and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine.[19] She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973.[20] She did not shine academically, failing her O-levels twice. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.[21] She left West Heath when she was sixteen.[22] Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time.[23] She showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist.[21] Diana also excelled in swimming and diving, and studied ballet and tap dance.[24]

After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette (a finishing school in Rougemont, Switzerland) for one term, and leaving after the Easter term of 1978,[25] Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends.[26] In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but seldom cooked for her roommates. She took a series of low-paying jobs; she worked as a dance instructor for youth until a skiing accident caused her to miss three months of work.[27] She then found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, and acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London,[28] and worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico.[29] In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18th birthday present.[30] She lived there with three flatmates until 25 February 1981.[31]

Marriage

Lady Diana first met Charles, Prince of Wales, the Queen's eldest son and heir apparent, when she was 16 in November 1977. He was then dating her older sister, Lady Sarah.[32][33] They were guests at a country weekend during the summer of 1980 when she watched him play polo and he took a serious interest in Diana as a potential bride. The relationship progressed when he invited her aboard the royal yacht Britannia for a sailing weekend to Cowes. This was followed by an invitation to Balmoral (the royal family's Scottish residence) to meet his family one weekend in November 1980.[34][35] Lady Diana was well received by the Queen, the Queen Mother and the Duke of Edinburgh. Prince Charles subsequently courted Diana in London. The Prince proposed on 6 February 1981, and Lady Diana accepted, but their engagement was kept secret for the next few weeks.[31]

Engagement and wedding

Further information: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer and Wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer The wedding of Charles and Diana commemorated on a 1981 British Crown

Their engagement became official on 24 February 1981.[18] Diana selected a large engagement ring that consisted of 14 solitaire diamonds surrounding a 12-carat oval blue Ceylon sapphire set in 18-carat white gold,[18] which was similar to her mother's engagement ring. The ring was made by the Crown jewellers Garrard. In 2010, it became the engagement ring of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.[36] The Queen Mother gave Diana a sapphire and diamond brooch as an engagement present.[37]

Following the engagement, Diana left her occupation as a kindergarten assistant and lived for a short period at Clarence House, which was the home of the Queen Mother.[38] She then lived at Buckingham Palace until the wedding.[38] Diana was the first Englishwoman to marry the first in line to the throne since Anne Hyde over 300 years earlier, and she was also the first royal bride to have a paying job before her engagement.[21][18] She made her first public appearance with Prince Charles in a charity ball in March 1981 at Goldsmiths' Hall, where she met Grace Kelly, who was the Princess of Monaco.[38]

Twenty-year-old Diana became Princess of Wales when she married the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral, which offered more seating than Westminster Abbey, a church that was generally used for royal nuptials.[21][18] The service was widely described as a "fairytale wedding" and was watched by a global television audience of 750million people while 600,000 spectators lined the streets to catch a glimpse of the couple en route to the ceremony.[18][39] At the altar, Diana inadvertently reversed the order of Charles's first two names, saying "Philip Charles" Arthur George instead.[39] She did not say she would "obey" him; that traditional vow was left out at the couple's request, which caused some comment at the time.[40] Diana wore a dress valued at ?9,000 with a 25-foot (7.62-metre) train.[41]

After she became Princess of Wales, Diana automatically acquired rank as the third-highest female in the United Kingdom Order of Precedence (after the Queen and the Queen Mother), and was fifth or sixth in the orders of precedence of her other realms, following the Queen, the relevant viceroy, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen Mother, and the Prince of Wales. Within a few years of the wedding, the Queen extended Diana visible tokens of membership in the royal family; she lent the Princess the Cambridge Lover's Knot Tiara,[42][43] and granted her the badge of the Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II.[44]

Children

The couple had residences at Kensington Palace and Highgrove House, near Tetbury. On 5 November 1981, the Princess's pregnancy was officially announced.[45] In January 1982twelve weeks into the pregnancyDiana fell down a staircase at Sandringham, and the royal gynaecologist Sir George Pinker was summoned from London. He found that although she had suffered severe bruising, the foetus was uninjured.[46] Diana later confessed that she had intentionally thrown herself down the stairs because she was feeling "so inadequate".[47] In February 1982, pictures of a pregnant Diana in bikini while holidaying was published in the media. The Queen subsequently released a statement and called it "the blackest day in the history of British journalism."[48] On 21 June 1982, the Princess gave birth to the couple's first son, Prince William.[49] Amidst some media criticism, she decided to take Williamwho was still a babyon her first major tours of Australia and New Zealand, and the decision was popularly applauded. By her own admission, the Princess of Wales had not initially intended to take William until Malcolm Fraser, the Australian prime minister, made the suggestion.[50]

A second son, Prince Harry, was born on 15 September 1984.[51] The Princess said she and the Prince were closest during her pregnancy with Harry. She was aware their second child was a boy, but did not share the knowledge with anyone else, including the Prince of Wales.[52]

Diana gave her sons wider experiences than was usual for royal children.[18][53][54] She rarely deferred to the Prince or to the royal family, and was often intransigent when it came to the children. She chose their first given names, dismissed a royal family nanny and engaged one of her own choosing, selected their schools and clothing, planned their outings, and took them to school herself as often as her schedule permitted. She also organised her public duties around their timetables.[55]

Problems and separation

The Prince and Princess of Wales after the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of York in 1986

Five years into the marriage, the couple's incompatibility and age difference of almost 13 years became visible and damaging.[56] Charles resumed his relationship with his former girlfriend Camilla Parker Bowles, and Diana later began an affair with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor. The media speculated that Hewitt, not Charles, was Harry's father based on the alleged physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry, but Hewitt and others have denied this. Harry was born two years before Hewitt and Diana began their affair.[52][57] In 1989, Diana was at a birthday party for Camilla's sister, Annabel Elliot, when she confronted Camilla about her and Charles's extramarital affair.[58][59] These affairs were later exposed in May 1992 with the publication of Andrew Morton's book, Diana: Her True Story.[60][61] The book, which also revealed the Princess's allegedly suicidal unhappiness, caused a media storm. Morton later revealed that in 1991 he had also conducted a secret interview with Diana in which she had talked about her marital issues and difficulties.[62] The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh hosted a meeting between Charles and Diana and unsuccessfully tried to effect a reconciliation.[63] Philip wrote to Diana and expressed his disappointment at the extramarital affairs of both her and Charles; he asked her to examine their behaviour from the other's point of view.[64] The Duke was direct and Diana was sensitive.[65] She found the letters hard to take, but nevertheless, she appreciated that he was acting with good intent.[66]

During 1992 and 1993, leaked tapes of telephone conversations reflected negatively on both the Prince and Princess of Wales. Tape recordings of the Princess and James Gilbey were made public in August 1992,[67] and transcripts were published the same month.[18] The article, "Squidgygate", was followed in November 1992 by the leaked "Camillagate" tapes, intimate exchanges between the Prince and Camilla, published in the tabloids.[68][69] In December 1992, Prime Minister John Major announced the couple's "amicable separation" to the House of Commons.[70]

Between 1992 and 1993, Diana hired voice coach Peter Settelen to help her develop her public speaking voice.[71] In a videotape recorded by Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that in 1984 through to 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."[72][73] It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee,[74] who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.[73][75] Diana said in the tape that Mannakee had been "chucked out" from his role as her bodyguard following suspicion that the two were having an affair.[72] Penny Junor suggested in her 1998 book that the Princess was in a romantic relationship with Mannakee.[76] Diana's friends dismissed the claim as absurd.[76] However, in the subsequently released tapes Diana said she had feelings for that "someone", saying "I was quite happy to give all this up [and] just to go off and live with him". She described him as "the greatest friend [she's] ever had", though she denied any sexual relationship with him.[77] She also spoke bitterly of her husband saying that "[He] made me feel so inadequate in every possible way, that each time I came up for air he pushed me down again."[78] Charles's aunt, Princess Margaret, burned "highly personal" letters that Diana had written to the Queen Mother in 1993. Biographer William Shawcross considered Margaret's action to be "understandable" as she was "protecting her mother and other members of the family", but "regrettable from a historical viewpoint".[79]

Although she blamed Camilla Parker Bowles for her marital troubles, Diana began to believe her husband had also been involved in other affairs. In October 1993, the Princess wrote to her butler Paul Burrell, telling him that she believed her husband was now in love with his personal assistant Tiggy Legge-Bourkewho was also his sons' former nannyand was planning to have her killed "to make the path clear for him to marry Tiggy".[80][81] Legge-Bourke had been hired by the Prince as a young companion for his sons while they were in his care, and the Princess was resentful of Legge-Bourke and her relationship with the young princes.[82] Prince Charles sought public understanding via a televised interview with Jonathan Dimbleby on 29 June 1994. In the interview, he said he had rekindled his relationship with Camilla in 1986 only after his marriage to the Princess had "irretrievably broken down".[83][84][85]

In the same year, the News of the World claimed that Diana had made over 300 phone calls to the married art dealer Oliver Hoare.[86][87] These calls were proven to have been made both from her Kensington Palace apartment and from the phone box just outside the palace. According to Hoare's obituary, there was little doubt she had been in a relationship with him.[88] However, the Princess denied any romantic relationship with Hoare, whom she described as a friend, and said that "a young boy" was the source of the nuisance calls made to Hoare.[89][90] She was also linked by the press to rugby union player Will Carling[91][92] and private equity investor Theodore J. Forstmann,[93][94] yet these claims were neither confirmed nor proven.[95][96]

Divorce

Journalist Martin Bashir interviewed Diana for the BBC current affairs show Panorama. The interview was broadcast on 20 November 1995.[97] The Princess discussed her and her husband's extramarital affairs.[98] Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship.[97] Authors Tina Brown, Sally Bedell Smith and Sarah Bradford support Diana's admission in the interview that she had suffered from depression, "rampant bulimia" and had engaged numerous times in the act of self mutilation; the show's transcript records Diana confirming many of her mental health problems, including that she had "hurt (her) arms and legs".[97] The combination of illnesses from which Diana herself said she suffered resulted in some of her biographers opining that she had a borderline personality disorder.[99][100]

The interview proved to be the tipping point. On 20 December, Buckingham Palace announced that the Queen had sent letters to the Prince and Princess of Wales, advising them to divorce.[101][102] The Queen's move was backed by the Prime Minister and by senior Privy Counsellors, and, according to the BBC, was decided after two weeks of talks.[103] Charles formally agreed to the divorce in a written statement soon after.[101] In February 1996, the Princess announced her agreement after negotiations with the Prince and representatives of the Queen,[104] irritating Buckingham Palace by issuing her own announcement of the divorce agreement and its terms. In July 1996, the couple agreed on the terms of their divorce.[105] This followed shortly after the Princess's accusation that the Prince's personal assistant Tiggy Legge-Bourke had aborted the Prince's child, after which Legge-Bourke instructed her attorney Peter Carter-Ruck to demand an apology.[106][107] Diana's secretary Patrick Jephson resigned shortly before the story broke, later writing that the Princess had "exulted in accusing Legge-Bourke of having had an abortion".[108][109]

The divorce was finalised on 28 August 1996.[110] Diana received a lump sum settlement of ?17million as well as ?400,000 per year. The couple signed a confidentiality agreement that prohibited them from discussing the details of the divorce or of their married life.[111][105] Days before, letters patent were issued with general rules to regulate royal titles after divorce. Diana lost the style "Her Royal Highness" and instead was styled Diana, Princess of Wales. As the mother of the prince expected to one day ascend to the throne, she continued to be regarded as a member of the royal family and was accorded the same precedence she enjoyed during her marriage.[112] The Queen reportedly wanted to let Diana continue to use the style of Royal Highness after her divorce, but Charles had insisted on removing it.[105] Prince William was reported to have reassured his mother: "Don't worry, Mummy, I will give it back to you one day when I am King."[113] Almost a year before, according to Tina Brown, the Duke of Edinburgh had warned the Princess of Wales: "If you don't behave, my girl, we'll take your title away." She is said to have replied: "My title is a lot older than yours, Philip."[114] By the time of Diana's death in 1997, she had not spoken to her mother in four months.[115] By contrast, Diana's relationship with her estranged stepmother had reportedly improved.[116][117]

Public life

Public appearances

Following her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana made her first official public appearance in March 1981 in a charity event at Goldsmiths' Hall.[118][119] In October 1981, the Prince and Princess visited Wales.[21][120] Diana attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time on 4 November 1981.[121] Her first solo engagement was a visit to Regent Street on 18 November 1981 to switch on the Christmas lights.[122] She attended the Trooping the Colour for the first time in June 1982, making her appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace afterwards. The Princess made her inaugural overseas tour in September 1982, to attend the state funeral of Grace, Princess of Monaco.[21] Also in 1982, Diana accompanied the Prince of Wales to the Netherlands and was created a Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown by Queen Beatrix.[123] In 1983, she accompanied the Prince on a tour of Australia and New Zealand with Prince William, where they met with representatives of the Maori people.[21] Their visit to Canada in June and July 1983 included a trip to Edmonton to open the 1983 Summer Universiade and a stop in Newfoundland to commemorate the 400th anniversary of that island's acquisition by the Crown.[124]

In February 1984, Diana was the patron of London City Ballet when she travelled to Norway on her own to attend a performance organised by the company.[21] In April 1985, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Italy, and were later joined by Princes William and Harry.[21] They met with President Alessandro Pertini. Their visit to the Holy See included a private audience with Pope John Paul II.[125] In November 1985, the couple visited the United States,[21] meeting President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan at the White House. Diana had a busy year in 1986. She embarked with the Prince of Wales on a tour of Japan, Indonesia, Spain, and Canada.[124] In Canada they visited Expo 86,[124] where Diana fainted in the California Pavilion.[126][127] In November 1986, she went on a six-day tour to the Arab Gulf States including Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, where she met King Fahd and Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said.[128]

In 1988, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Thailand and toured Australia for the bicentenary celebrations.[21][129] In February 1989, she spent a few days in New York as a solo visit. During a tour of Harlem Hospital Center, she made a profound impact on the public by spontaneously hugging a seven-year-old child with AIDS.[130] In March 1989, she had her second trip to the Arab Gulf States, in which she visited Kuwait and the UAE.[128]

Charles and Diana with the US Vice President Dan Quayle and his wife Marilyn following the enthronement of Emperor Akihito, 1990

In March 1990, she and the Prince of Wales toured Nigeria and Cameroon.[131] The President of Cameroon hosted an official dinner to welcome them in Yaounde.[131] Highlights of the tour included visits by the Princess of Wales to hospitals and projects focusing on women's development.[131] In May 1990, they visited Hungary for four days.[130][132] It was the first visit by members of the royal family to "a former Warsaw Pact country".[130] They attended a dinner hosted by President Arpad Goncz and viewed a fashion display at the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest.[132] Peto Institute was among the places that were visited by the Princess, and she presented its director with an honorary OBE.[130] In November 1990, the royal couple went to Japan to attend the enthronement of Emperor Akihito.[21][133]

In her desire to play an encouraging role during the Gulf War, the Princess of Wales visited Germany in December 1990 to meet with the families of soldiers.[130] She subsequently travelled to Germany in January 1991 to visit RAF Bruggen, and later wrote an encouraging letter which was published in Soldier, Navy News and RAF News.[130] In 1991, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, where they presented the university with a replica of their royal charter.[134] In September 1991, the Princess visited Pakistan on a solo trip, and went to Brazil with Charles.[135] During the Brazilian tour, Diana paid visits to organisations that battled homelessness among street children.[135] Her final trips with Charles were to India and South Korea in 1992.[21] She visited Mother Teresa's hospice in Kolkata, India, in 1992.[136] The two women met each other again that year[137] and developed a personal relationship.[136] It was also during the Indian tour that pictures of Diana alone in front of the Taj Mahal made headlines.[138][139]

In December 1993, she announced that she would withdraw from public life, but in November 1994 she said she wished to "make a partial return".[21][130] In her capacity as the vice-president of British Red Cross, she was interested in playing an important role for its 125th anniversary celebrations.[130] Later, the Queen formally invited her to attend the anniversary celebrations of D-Day.[21] In February 1995, the Princess visited Japan.[133] She paid a formal visit to Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko,[133] and visited the National Children's Hospital in Tokyo.[140] In June 1995, Diana went to the Venice Biennale art festival,[141] and also visited Moscow where she received the International Leonardo Prize.[142][143] In November 1995, the Princess undertook a four-day trip to Argentina in order to attend a charity event.[144] The Princess visited many other countries, including Belgium, Nepal, Switzerland, and Zimbabwe, alongside numerous others.[21] During her separation from Charles which lasted for almost four years, she participated in major national occasions as a senior member of the royal family, notably including "the commemorations of the 50th anniversaries of Victory in Europe Day and Victory over Japan Day" in 1995.[21] The Princess's 36th and final birthday celebration was held at Tate Gallery, which was also a commemorative event for the gallery's 100th anniversary.[21]

Charity work and patronage

In 1983, she confided in the then-Premier of Newfoundland, Brian Peckford, "I am finding it very difficult to cope with the pressures of being Princess of Wales, but I am learning to cope with it."[145] As Princess of Wales, she was expected to make regular public appearances at hospitals, schools, and other facilities, in the 20th-century model of royal patronage. From the mid-1980s, she became increasingly associated with numerous charities. She carried out 191 official engagements in 1988[146] and 397 in 1991.[147] The Princess developed an intense interest in serious illnesses and health-related matters outside the purview of traditional royal involvement, including AIDS and leprosy. In recognition of her effect as a philanthropist, Stephen Lee, director of the UK Institute of Charity Fundraising Managers, said "Her overall effect on charity is probably more significant than any other person's in the 20th century."[148]

The Princess at the official opening of the community centre on Whitehall Road, Bristol, in May 1987

Diana's extensive charity work also included campaigning for animal protection and fighting against the use of landmines.[149] She was the patroness of charities and organisations who worked with the homeless, youth, drug addicts, and the elderly. From 1989, she was president of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. She was patron of the Natural History Museum[150][151] and president of the Royal Academy of Music.[106][152][150] From 1984 to 1996, she was president of Barnardo's, a charity founded by Dr. Thomas John Barnardo in 1866 to care for vulnerable children and young people.[153][150] In 1988, she became patron of the British Red Cross and supported its organisations in other countries such as Australia and Canada.[130] She made several lengthy visits each week to Royal Brompton Hospital, where she worked to comfort seriously ill or dying patients.[136] From 1991 to 1996, she was a patron of Headway, a brain injury association.[150][154] In 1992, she became the first patron of Chester Childbirth Appeal, a charity she had supported since 1984.[155] The charity, which is named after one of Diana's royal titles, could raise over ?1 million with her help.[155] In 1994, she helped her friend Julia Samuel launch the charity Child Bereavement UK which supports children "of military families, those of suicide victims, [and] terminally-ill parents," and became its patron.[156] Prince William later replaced his mother as the charity's royal patron.[157]

Her patronages also included Landmine Survivors Network,[152] Help the Aged,[152][150] the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,[152][150] the British Lung Foundation,[152][150] Eureka! (joint patron with Prince Charles),[152][150] the National Children's Orchestra,[152][150][130] British Red Cross Youth,[158][150] the Guinness Trust,[150] Meningitis Trust,[150][130] the Malcolm Sargent Cancer Fund for Children,[150][130] the Royal School for the Blind,[150][130] Welsh National Opera,[150][130] the Variety Club of New Zealand,[159][150] Birthright,[150][160] the British Deaf Association (for which she learned sign language),[158][150][161] All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club,[150] Anglo-European College of Chiropractic,[150] Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,[150] Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital,[150] British Sports Association for the Disabled,[150] British Youth Opera,[150] Faculty of Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England,[150] London City Ballet,[150] London Symphony Orchestra,[150] Pre-School Playgroups Association,[150][130] as well as president or patron of other charities.[150]

Diana and Luciano Pavarotti at the benefit concert Pavarotti & Friends for the Children of Bosnia in Modena, Italy, September 1995

In 1987, Diana was awarded the Honorary Freedom of the City of London, the highest honour which is in the power of the City of London to bestow on someone.[162][163] In June 1995, the Princess travelled to Moscow. She paid a visit to a children's hospital she had previously supported when she provided them with medical equipment. In Moscow, she received the International Leonardo Prize, which is given to "the most distinguished patrons and people in the arts, medicine, and sports".[149] In December 1995, Diana received the United Cerebral Palsy Humanitarian of the Year Award in New York City for her philanthropic efforts.[164][165][166] In October 1996, for her works on the elderly, the Princess was awarded a gold medal at a health care conference organised by the Pio Manzu Centre in Rimini, Italy.[167]

The day after her divorce, she announced her resignation from over 100 charities and retained patronages of only six: Centrepoint, English National Ballet, Great Ormond Street Hospital, The Leprosy Mission, National AIDS Trust, and the Royal Marsden Hospital.[168] She continued her work with the British Red Cross Anti-Personnel Land Mines Campaign, but was no longer listed as patron.[169][170]

In May 1997, the Princess opened the Richard Attenborough Centre for Disability and the Arts in Leicester, after being asked by her friend Richard Attenborough.[171] In June 1997, her dresses and suits were sold at Christie's auction houses in London and New York, and the proceeds that were earned from these events were donated to charities.[21] Her final official engagement was a visit to Northwick Park Hospital, London, on 21 July 1997.[21]

Areas of work

HIV/AIDS

The Princess began her work with AIDS victims in the 1980s.[172] In 1989, she opened Landmark Aids Centre in South London.[173][174] She was not averse to making physical contact with AIDS patients, though it was still unknown whether the disease could be spread that way.[136][175][176] Diana was the first British royal figure to contact AIDS patients.[172] In 1987, she held hands with an AIDS patient in one of her early efforts to de-stigmatise the condition.[177][178] Diana noted: "HIV does not make people dangerous to know. You can shake their hands and give them a hug. Heaven knows they need it. What's more, you can share their homes, their workplaces, and their playgrounds and toys."[130][179][180] To Diana's disappointment, the Queen did not support this type of charity work, suggesting she get involved in "something more pleasant".[172] In October 1990, Diana opened Grandma's House, a home for young AIDS victims in Washington, D.C.[181] She was also a patron of the National AIDS Trust.[130] In 1991, she hugged one victim during a visit to the AIDS ward of the Middlesex Hospital,[130] which she had opened in 1987 as the first hospital unit dedicated to this cause in the UK.[177][182] As the patron of Turning Point, a health and social care organisation, Diana visited its project in London for people with HIV/AIDS in 1992.[183] She later established and led fundraising campaigns for AIDS research.[18]

In March 1997, Diana visited South Africa, where she met with President Nelson Mandela.[184][185] On 2 November 2002, Mandela announced that the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund would be teaming up with the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund to help victims of AIDS.[186] They had planned the combination of the two charities a few months before her death.[186] Mandela later praised Diana for her efforts surrounding the issue of HIV/AIDS: "When she stroked the limbs of someone with leprosy or sat on the bed of a man with HIV/AIDS and held his hand, she transformed public attitudes and improved the life chances of such people".[187] Diana had used her celebrity status to "fight stigma attached to people living with HIV/AIDS", Mandela said.[186] In 2009, a panel including Sir Ian McKellen and Alan Hollinghurst chose Diana's portrait to be shown in the Gay Icons exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London.[188] In October 2017, the Attitude magazine honoured Diana with its Legacy Award for her HIV/AIDS work. Prince Harry accepted the award on behalf of his mother.[182][189]

Landmines

U.S. First Lady Hillary Clinton and Diana chat in the Map Room following a landmines campaign fund-raiser, June 1997

Diana was the patron of HALO Trust, an organisation that removes debrisparticularly landminesleft behind by war.[190][191] In January 1997, pictures of Diana touring an Angolan minefield in a ballistic helmet and flak jacket were seen worldwide.[190][191] During her campaign, she was accused of meddling in politics and called a 'loose cannon' by the Earl Howe, an official in the British Ministry of Defence.[192] Despite the criticism, HALO states that Diana's efforts resulted in raising international awareness about landmines and the subsequent sufferings caused by them.[190][191] In June 1997, she gave a speech at a landmines conference held at the Royal Geographical Society, and travelled to Washington, D.C. to help promote the American Red Cross landmines campaign.[21] From 7 to 10 August 1997, just days before her death, she visited Bosnia and Herzegovina with Jerry White and Ken Rutherford of the Landmine Survivors Network.[21][193][194][195]

Her work on the landmines issue has been described as influential in the signing of the Ottawa Treaty, which created an international ban on the use of anti-personnel landmines.[196] Introducing the Second Reading of the Landmines Bill 1998 to the British House of Commons, the Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, paid tribute to Diana's work on landmines:

All Honourable Members will be aware from their postbags of the immense contribution made by Diana, Princess of Wales to bringing home to many of our constituents the human costs of landmines. The best way in which to record our appreciation of her work, and the work of NGOs that have campaigned against landmines, is to pass the Bill, and to pave the way towards a global ban on landmines.[197]

A few months after Diana's death in 1997, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines won the Nobel Peace Prize.[198]

Cancer

For her first solo official trip, Diana visited The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, a cancer treatment hospital in London.[159] She later chose this charity to be among the organisations that benefited from the auction of her clothes in New York.[159] The trust's communications manager said, "The Princess had done much to remove the stigma and taboo associated with diseases such as cancer, AIDS, HIV and leprosy."[159] Diana became president of the hospital on 27 June 1989.[199][200][201] The Wolfson Children's Cancer Unit was opened by Diana on 25 February 1993.[199] In February 1996, the Princess who had been informed about a newly opened cancer hospital built by Imran Khan, travelled to Pakistan to visit its children's cancer wards and attend a fundraising dinner in aid of the charity in Lahore.[202] She later visited the hospital again in May 1997.[203] In June 1996, she travelled to Chicago in her capacity as president of the Royal Marsden Hospital in order to attend a fundraising event and raised more than ?1 million for cancer research.[130] In September 1996, after being asked by Katharine Graham, the Princess went to Washington and appeared at a White House breakfast in respect of the Nina Hyde Center for Breast Cancer Research.[204] She also attended an annual fund-raiser for breast cancer research organised by The Washington Post at the same centre.[18][205]

In 1988, the Princess of Wales opened Children with Leukaemia (later renamed Children with Cancer UK) in memory of two young cancer victims.[206][207][208] In November 1987, a few days after the death of Jean O'Gorman from cancer, Diana met her family.[206][207] The deaths of Jean and her brother affected the Princess, and she assisted their family to establish the charity.[206][207][208] It was opened by her on 12 January 1988 at Mill Hill Secondary School, and she supported it until her death in 1997.[206][208]

Other areas

In November 1989, the Princess visited a leprosy hospital in Indonesia.[209][172] Following her visit, she became patron of the Leprosy Mission, an organisation dedicated to providing medicine, treatment, and other support services to those who are afflicted with the disease. She remained the patron of this charity[168] and visited several of its hospitals around the world, especially in India, Nepal, Zimbabwe and Nigeria until her death in 1997.[130][210] She touched those affected by the disease when many people believed it could be contracted through casual contact.[130][209] "It has always been my concern to touch people with leprosy, trying to show in a simple action that they are not reviled, nor are we repulsed," she commented.[210] The Diana Princess of Wales Health Education and Media Centre in Noida, India, was opened in her honour in November 1999, funded by the Diana Princess of Wales Memorial Fund to give social support to the people affected by leprosy and disability.[210]

Diana was a long-standing and active supporter of Centrepoint, a charity which provides accommodation and support to homeless people, and became patron in 1992.[211][212] She supported organisations that battle poverty and homelessness. The Princess was a supporter of young homeless people and spoke out on behalf of them by saying that "they deserve a decent start in life".[213] "We, as a part of society, must ensure that young people who are our future are given the chance they deserve," she said.[213] Diana used to take young William and Harry for private visits to Centrepoint services and homeless shelters.[18][211][214] "The young people at Centrepoint were always really touched by her visits and by her genuine feelings for them," said one of the charity's staff members.[215] Prince William later became the patron of this charity.[211]

Diana visiting the drug squad of the West Midlands Police in 1987

Diana was a staunch and longtime supporter of charities and organisations that focused on social and mental issues, including Relate and Turning Point.[130] Relate was relaunched in 1987 as a renewed version to its predecessor, the National Marriage Guidance Council. Diana became its patron in 1989.[130] Turning Point, a health and social care organisation, was founded in 1964 to help and support those affected by drug and alcohol misuse and mental health problems. She became the charity's patron in 1987 and visited the charity on a regular basis, meeting the sufferers at its centres or institutions including Rampton and Broadmoor.[130] In 1990 during a speech for Turning Point she said, "It takes professionalism to convince a doubting public that it should accept back into its midst many of those diagnosed as psychotics, neurotics and other sufferers who Victorian communities decided should be kept out of sight in the safety of mental institutions."[130] Despite the protocol problems of travelling to a Muslim country, she made a trip to Pakistan later that year in order to visit a rehabilitation centre in Lahore as a sign of "her commitment to working against drug abuse".[130]

Privacy and the media

In 1993, Mirror Group Newspapers (MGN) published photographs of the Princess that were taken by gym owner Bryce Taylor. The photos showed her exercising in the gym LA Fitness wearing "a leotard and cycling shorts".[216][217] The Princess's lawyers immediately filed a criminal complaint that sought "a permanent ban on the sale and publication of the photographs" around the world.[216][217] However, some newspapers outside the UK published the pictures.[216] The courts granted an injunction against Taylor and MGN that prohibited "further publication of the pictures".[216] MGN later issued an apology after facing much criticism from the public.[216] It is said that MGN gave the Princess ?1 million as a payment for her legal costs and donated ?200,000 to her charities.[216] Taylor apologised as well and paid Diana ?300,000, although it was alleged that a member of the royal family had helped him financially.[216]

Personal life after divorce

Diana meeting with Sri Chinmoy at Kensington Palace in May 1997

After her 1996 divorce, Diana retained the double apartment on the north side of Kensington Palace that she had shared with the Prince of Wales since the first year of their marriage; the apartment remained her home until her death the following year. She also moved her offices to Kensington Palace but was permitted "to use the state apartments at St James's Palace".[105][218] Furthermore, she continued to have access to the jewellery that she had received during her marriage, and was allowed to use the air transport of the British royal family and government.[105] In a book published in 2003, Paul Burrell claimed the Princess's private letters had revealed that her brother, Lord Spencer, had refused to allow her to live at Althorp, despite her request.[107]

Diana dated the British-Pakistani heart surgeon Hasnat Khan, who was called "the love of her life" by many of her closest friends after her death,[219][220][221] and she is said to have described him as "Mr Wonderful".[222][223][224][225] In May 1996, Diana visited Lahore upon invitation of Imran Khan, a relative of Hasnat Khan, and visited the latter's family in secret.[226][227] Khan was intensely private and the relationship was conducted in secrecy, with Diana lying to members of the press who questioned her about it. Their relationship lasted almost two years with differing accounts of who ended it.[227][228] She is said to have spoken of her distress when "he" ended their relationship.[219] However, according to Khan's testimonial at the inquest for her death, it was Diana who ended their relationship in the summer of 1997.[229] Burrell also said the relationship was ended by the Princess in July 1997.[230] Burrell also claimed that Diana's mother, Frances Shand Kydd, disapproved of her daughter's relationship with a Muslim man.[231]

Within a month, Diana began a relationship with Dodi Fayed, the son of her summer host, Mohamed Al-Fayed.[232] That summer, Diana had considered taking her sons on a holiday to the Hamptons on Long Island, New York, but security officials had prevented it. After deciding against a trip to Thailand, she accepted Fayed's invitation to join his family in the south of France, where his compound and large security detail would not cause concern to the Royal Protection squad. Mohamed Al-Fayed bought the Jonikal, a 60-metre multimillion-pound yacht on which to entertain Diana and her sons.[232][233][234]

Death

East entrance to the Pont de l'Alma tunnel[235] Main article: Death of Diana, Princess of Wales

On 31 August 1997, Diana died in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma tunnel in Paris while the driver was fleeing the paparazzi.[236] The crash also resulted in the deaths of her companion Dodi Fayed and the driver, Henri Paul, who was the acting security manager of the Hotel Ritz Paris. Diana's bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived the crash. The televised funeral, on 6 September, was watched by a British television audience that peaked at 32.10million, which was one of the United Kingdom's highest viewing figures ever. Millions more watched the event around the world.[237][238]

Tribute, funeral, and burial

Main article: Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales Further information: Althorp Diana grave, memorial, and exhibition Flowers outside Kensington Palace

The sudden and unexpected death of an extraordinarily popular royal figure brought statements from senior figures worldwide and many tributes by members of the public.[239][240][241] People left public offerings of flowers, candles, cards, and personal messages outside Kensington Palace for many months. Her coffin, draped with the royal flag, was brought to London from Paris by Prince Charles and Diana's two sisters on 31 August 1997.[242][243] The coffin was taken to a private mortuary and then placed in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.[242]

Diana's coffin, draped in the royal standard with an ermine border, borne through the streets of London on its way to Westminster Abbey

On 5 September, Queen Elizabeth II paid tribute to her in a live television broadcast.[21] Diana's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey on 6 September. Her sons walked in the funeral procession behind her coffin, along with her ex-husband the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, Diana's brother Lord Spencer, and representatives of some of her charities.[21] Lord Spencer said of his sister, "She proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic."[244] Re-written in tribute to Diana, "Candle in the Wind 1997" was performed by Elton John at the funeral service (the only occasion the song has been performed live).[245] Released as a single in 1997, the global proceeds from the song have gone to Diana's charities.[245][246][247]

The burial took place privately later the same day. Diana's former husband, sons, mother, siblings, a close friend, and a clergyman were present. Diana's body was clothed in a black long-sleeved dress designed by Catherine Walker, which she had chosen some weeks before. A set of rosary beads that she had received from Mother Teresa was placed in her hands. Mother Teresa had died the same week as Diana. Diana's grave is on an island (5216?59?N 100?01?W? / ?52.283082N 1.000278W) within the grounds of Althorp Park, the Spencer family home for centuries.[248]

The burial party was provided by the 2nd Battalion The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, who were given the honour of carrying the Princess across to the island and laying her to rest. Diana was the Regiment's Colonel-in-Chief from 1992 to 1996.[249] The original plan was for Diana to be buried in the Spencer family vault at the local church in nearby Great Brington, but Lord Spencer said he was concerned about public safety and security and the onslaught of visitors that might overwhelm Great Brington. He decided Diana would be buried where her grave could be easily cared for and visited in privacy by William, Harry, and other Spencer relatives.[250]

Conspiracy theories, inquest and verdict

Main article: Death of Diana, Princess of Wales conspiracy theories

The initial French judicial investigation concluded that the crash was caused by Paul's intoxication, reckless driving, speeding (65mph), and effects of prescription drugs.[251] In February 1998, Mohamed Al-Fayed, owner of the Paris Ritz where Paul had worked, publicly said the crash had been planned[252] and accused MI6 and the Duke of Edinburgh.[253] An inquest that started in London in 2004 and continued in 200708[254] attributed the crash to grossly negligent driving by Paul and to the pursuing paparazzi, who forced Paul to speed into the tunnel.[255] On 7 April 2008, the jury returned a verdict of "unlawful killing". On the day after the final verdict of the inquest, Al-Fayed announced that he would end his 10-year campaign to establish that the tragedy was murder rather than an accident; he said he did so for the sake of the Princess's children.[256]

Later events

Finances

Following her death, Diana left a ?21 million estate, "netting ?17 million after estate taxes", which were left in the hands of trustees, her mother, and her sister, Lady Sarah.[257][258] The will was signed in June 1993, but Diana had it modified in February 1996 to remove the name of her personal secretary from the list of trustees and have her sister Sarah replace him.[259] After applying personal and inheritance taxes, a net estate of ?12.9 million was left to be distributed among the beneficiaries.[260] Her two sons subsequently inherited the majority of her estate. Each of them received their part upon turning 30 years old in 2012 and 2014 respectively.[261] Many of Diana's possessions were initially left in the care of her brother who put them on show in Althorp twice a year until they were returned to the princes.[261][257] They were also put on display in American museums and as of 2011 raised two million dollars for charities.[257] Among the objects were her dresses and suits along with numerous family paintings, jewels and two diamond tiaras.[261] Diana's engagement ring was given to William, who later passed it to his wife, Catherine Middleton, while her wedding dress and a yellow gold watch were given to Harry.[261][262][263]

In addition to her will,[258] Diana had also written a letter of wishes in which she had asked for three-fourths of her personal property to be given to her sons, and dividing the remaining one-fourth (aside from the jewelry) between her 17 godchildren.[257] Despite Diana's wishes, the executors (her mother and sister) "petitioned the probate court for a "variance" of the will", and the letter of wishes was ignored "because it did not contain certain language required by British law".[257] Eventually, one item from Diana's estate was given to each of her godchildren, while they would have received ?100,000 each, had one-fourth of her estate been divided between them.[257] The variance also prevented the estate from being distributed between her sons at the age of 25 but postponed it until they were 30.[257][258] Diana also left her butler Paul Burrell around ?50,000 in cash.[260][258][262]

Subject of government surveillance

In 1999, after the submission of a Freedom of Information Act request filed by the Internet news service apbonline.com, it was revealed that Diana had been placed under surveillance by the National Security Agency until her death, and the organisation kept a top secret file on her containing more than 1,000 pages.[264][265] The contents of Diana's NSA file cannot be disclosed because of national security concerns.[264] The NSA officials insisted Diana was not a "target of [their] massive, worldwide electronic eavesdropping infrastructure."[264] Despite multiple inquiries for the files to be declassifiedwith one of the notable ones being filed by Mohamed Al-Fayedthe NSA has refused to release the documents.[265]

In 2008, Ken Wharfe, a former bodyguard of the Princess, claimed that her scandalous conversations with James Gilbey (commonly referred to as the Squidgygate) were in fact recorded by the GCHQ, which intentionally released them on a "loop".[266] People close to the Princess believed the action was intended to defame her.[266] Wharfe said Diana herself believed that members of the royal family were all being monitored, though he also stated that the main reason of it could be due to the potential threats of the IRA.[266]

The Memorial Fund controversy

The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund was established after her death and was granted intellectual property rights over her image.[267] In 1998, the fund sued the Franklin Mint, accusing it of illegally selling Diana dolls, plates, and jewellery after having been refused a license to do so.[268][269] In California, where the initial case was tried, a suit to preserve the right of publicity may be filed on behalf of a dead person, but only if that person is a Californian. The Memorial Fund therefore filed the lawsuit on behalf of the estate and, upon losing the case, was required to pay the Franklin Mint's legal costs of ?3million which, combined with other fees, caused the Memorial Fund to freeze its grants to charities.[268][269] In 2003, the Franklin Mint counter-sued. In November 2004, the case was settled out of court with the Memorial Fund agreeing to pay ?13.5 million (US$21.5 million) to charitable causes on which both sides agreed.[270] In addition to this, the Memorial Fund had spent a total of close to ?4 million (US$6.5 million) in costs and fees relating to this litigation, and as a result froze grants allocated to a number of charities.[267]

Anniversaries, commemorations, and auctions

Wikinews has related news: 10 years on Diana, Princess of Wales remembered

On the first anniversary of Diana's death, people left flowers and bouquets outside the gates of Kensington Palace and a memorial service was held at Westminster Abbey.[271][272] The royal family and the Prime Minister and his family went to Crathie Kirk for private prayers, while Diana's family held a private memorial service at Althorp.[273][274] All flags at Buckingham Palace and other royal residences were flown at half-mast on the Queen's orders.[275] The Union Jack was first lowered to half-mast on the day of Diana's funeral and has set a precedent, as based on the previous protocol no flag could ever fly at half-mast over the palace "even on the death of a monarch".[275] Since 1997, however, the flag has flown at half-mast upon the deaths of members of the royal family, and other times of national mourning.[276]

The Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium was held on 1 July 2007. The event, organised by the Princes William and Harry, celebrated the 46th anniversary of their mother's birth and occurred a few weeks before the 10th anniversary of her death on 31 August.[277][278] The proceeds from this event were donated to Diana's charities.[279] On 31 August 2007, a memorial service for Diana took place in the Guards Chapel.[280] Guests included members of the royal family and their relatives, members of the Spencer family, members of Diana's wedding party, Diana's close friends and aides, representatives from many of her charities, British politicians Gordon Brown, Tony Blair, and John Major, and friends from the entertainment world such as David Frost, Elton John, and Cliff Richard.[152]

In January 2013, a previously unseen photograph of Diana taken during her engagement to Charles was put up for auction. The picture belonged to the Daily Mirror newspaper and has "Not to be published" written on it. In it, a young Diana lies across the lap of an unidentified man.[281]

John Travolta and the Princess of Wales dancing at the White House, November 1985

On 19 March 2013, ten of Diana's dresses, including a midnight blue velvet gown she wore to a 1985 state dinner at the White House when she danced with John Travolta (which became known as the Travolta dress), raised over ?800,000 at auction in London.[282]

In January 2017, a series of letters that Diana and other members of the royal family had written to a Buckingham Palace steward were sold as a part of a collection titled "the private letters between a trusted butler and the royal family".[283][284] The six letters that were written by Diana included information about her young sons' daily life and raised ?15,100.[283][284]

"Diana: Her Fashion Story", an exhibition of gowns and suits worn by the Princess, was announced to be opened at Kensington Palace in February 2017 as a tribute to mark her 20th death anniversary, with her favorite dresses created by numerous fashion designers, including Catherine Walker and Victor Edelstein, being displayed.[285][286] The exhibition opened on 24 February displaying a collection of 25 dresses, and was set to remain open until 2018.[287][288]

Other tributes planned for the anniversary included exhibitions at Althorp hosted by the Princess's brother, Earl Spencer,[289] a series of commemorating events organised by the Diana Memorial Award,[290] as well as restyling Kensington Gardens and creating a new section called "The White Garden" in order to symbolise Diana's life and style.[285][286][291]

On 31 August 2019, the Princess Diana 3D Virtual Museum was launched to mark the 22nd anniversary of Diana's death. Operated by the Princess & the Platypus Foundation, the online museum consists of over 1,000 of Diana's items which were photographed using the techniques of virtual reality.[292]

Legacy

Public image

Wax statue of Diana at Madame Tussauds in London

Diana remains one of the most popular members of the royal family throughout history, and she continues to influence the principles of the royal family and its younger generations.[293][294] She was a major presence on the world stage from her engagement to the Prince of Wales in 1981 until her death in 1997, and was often described as the "world's most photographed woman".[18][295] She was noted for her compassion,[296] style, charisma, and high-profile charity work, as well as her ill-fated marriage to the Prince of Wales.[297] Her former private secretary described her as an organised and hardworking person, and pointed out that the Princess's husband was not able to "reconcile with his wife's extraordinary popularity",[298] a viewpoint supported by biographer Tina Brown.[299] He also said she was a tough boss who was "equally quick to appreciate hard work", but could also be defiant "if she felt she had been the victim of injustice".[298] Paul Burrell, who worked as a butler for the Princess, remembered her as a "deep thinker" capable of "introspective analysis".[300] She was often described as a devoted mother to her children,[18][301] who are influenced by her personality and way of life.[297] In the early years, Diana was often noted for her shy nature,[293][302] as well as her shrewdness, funny character, and smartness.[294] Those who communicated with her closely describe her as a person who was led by her heart.[18] The Princess was also said to have a strong character, because she entered the royal family as an inexperienced girl with little education, but could handle their expectations, and overcome the difficulties and sufferings of her marital life.[148]

Diana was widely known for her encounters with sick and dying patients, and the poor and unwanted whom she used to comfort, an action that earned her more popularity.[303] She was mindful of people's thoughts and feelings, and later revealed her wish to become a beloved figure among the people, saying in her 1995 interview, that "[She would] like to be a queen of people's hearts, in people's hearts."[302] According to Tina Brown, she could charm people with a single glance.[299] Brown also points out that Diana's fame had spread around the world, even affecting Tony Blair who reportedly said Diana had shown the nation "a new way to be British".[300] Diana is often credited with widening the range of charity works carried out by the royal family in a more modern style,[148] as well as affecting some of the household's traditional manners.[304] Eugene Robinson of The Washington Post wrote in an article that "Diana imbued her role as royal princess with vitality, activism and, above all, glamour."[18] Alicia Carroll of The New York Times described Diana as "a breath of fresh air" who was the main reason the royal family was known in the United States.[305] Despite all the marital issues and scandals, Diana continued to enjoy a high level of popularity in the polls while her husband was suffering from low levels of public approval.[18] Her peak popularity rate in the United Kingdom between 1981 and 2012 was 47%.[306]

Diana had become what Prime Minister Tony Blair called the "People's Princess", an iconic national figure. Her accidental death brought an unprecedented spasm of grief and mourning,[307] and subsequently a crisis arose in the Royal Household.[308][309][310] Andrew Marr said that by her death she "revived the culture of public sentiment".[148] Her brother, the Earl Spencer, captured her role:

Diana was the very essence of compassion, of duty, of style, of beauty. All over the world she was a symbol of selfless humanity. All over the world, a standard bearer for the rights of the truly downtrodden, a very British girl who transcended nationality. Someone with a natural nobility who was classless and who proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic.[311]

In 1997, the Princess was one of the runners-up for Time magazine's person of the Year.[312] In 1999, Time magazine named Diana one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century.[313] In 2002, Diana ranked third on the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, above the Queen and other British monarchs.[314] In 2006, the Japanese public ranked Diana twelfth in The Top 100 Historical Persons in Japan.[315] In 2018, Diana ranked fifteenth on the BBC History's poll of 100 Women Who Changed the World.[316][317]

Despite being regarded as an iconic figure and a popular member of the royal family, Diana was subject to criticism during her life. Patrick Jephson, her private secretary of eight years, wrote in an article in The Daily Telegraph that "[Diana] had an extra quality that frustrated her critics during her lifetime and has done little to soften their disdain since her death... the human face of a remote institution".[293] Some have said it was Diana who let the journalists and paparazzi into her life as she knew that they were the source of her power,[300] thus she had "overburdened herself with public duties" and destroyed the border between private and public life.[148][100][318] Diana was criticised by philosophy professor Anthony O'Hear who in his notes argued that she was unable to fulfill her duties, her reckless behaviour was damaging the monarchy, and she was "self-indulgent" in her philanthropic efforts.[215] Following his remarks, charity organisations that were supported by her defended the Princess, and Peter Luff called O'Hear's comments "distasteful and inappropriate".[215] Further criticism surfaced as she was accused of using her public profile to benefit herself,[100] which in turn "demeaned her royal office".[293] Diana's unique type of charity work, which sometimes included physical contact with people affected by serious diseases sometimes had a negative reaction in the media.[293]

Sally Bedell Smith characterised Diana as unpredictable, egocentric, and possessive.[100] Smith also argued that in her desire to do charity works she was "motivated by personal considerations, rather than by an ambitious urge to take on a societal problem".[100] Eugene Robinson, however, said that "[Diana] was serious about the causes she espoused".[18] According to Sarah Bradford, Diana looked down on the House of Windsor whom she reportedly viewed "as jumped-up foreign princelings" and called them "the Germans".[300] She believed Diana was a "victim of her own poor judgment" as she lost social privilege by doing the Panorama interview.[300] Some observers characterised her as a manipulative person.[308][294] It was also alleged by some people that the Princess and her former father-in-law, Prince Philip, had a relationship filled with tension;[230][319] however, other observers said their letters provided no sign of friction between them.[320] Author Anne Applebaum believed that Diana has not had any impact on public opinions posthumously;[148] an idea supported by Jonathan Freedland of The Guardian who also noted in his article that Diana's memory and influence started to fade away in the years after her death,[304] while Peter Conrad, another Guardian contributor, argued that even in "a decade after her death, she is still not silent,"[300] and Allan Massie of The Telegraph described the Princess as "the celebrity of celebrities" whose sentiments "continue to shape our society".[318] Writing for The Guardian, Monica Ali described Diana as "a one-off, fascinating and flawed. Her legacy might be mixed, but it's not insubstantial. Her life was brief, but she left her mark".[148]

Style icon

The Princess of Wales at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. The strapless Catherine Walker dress,[321] which was inspired by a dress worn by Grace Kelly in To Catch a Thief,[322] is considered to be among the most iconic dresses worn at the festival throughout its history.[323][324][325] It was later sold to Julien's Auctions for over ?80,000.[326]

Diana was a fashion icon whose style was emulated by women around the world. Iain Hollingshead of The Telegraph wrote: "[Diana] had an ability to sell clothes just by looking at them."[327][328] An early example of the effect occurred during her courtship with Charles in 1980 when sales of Hunter Wellington boots skyrocketed after she was pictured wearing a pair on the Balmoral estate.[327][329] According to designers and people who worked with Diana, she used fashion and style to endorse her charitable causes, express herself and communicate.[330][331][332] The Princess continued to remain a prominent figure for her fashion style,[333][334] and is still considered an inspiration for stylists,[335] celebrities,[336][285] and young women,[337] including the singer Rihanna who is influenced by her and during an interview by Glamour in 2013 said: "[Diana] killed it. Every look was right. She was gangsta with her clothes. She had these crazy hats. She got oversize jackets. I loved everything she wore!"[338][339] One of her favourite milliners, John Boyd, said "Diana was our best ambassador for hats, and the entire millinery industry owes her a debt." Boyd's pink tricorn hat Diana wore for her honeymoon was later copied by milliners across the world and credited with rebooting an industry in decline for decades.[340][341]

The Princess chose her dressing style based on both the royal family's demands and popular modern styles in Britain,[342] and developed her personal fashion trend.[343] While on diplomatic trips, her clothes and attire were chosen to match the destination countries' costumes, and while off-duty she used to wear loose jackets and jumpers.[336][344] "She was always very thoughtful about how her clothes would be interpreted, it was something that really mattered to her," according to Anna Harvey, a former Vogue editor and the Princess's fashion mentor.[336][345] David Sassoon, one of the designers who worked with Diana, believed she had "broken the rules" trying new styles.[322] Diana chose not to practice some of the royal clothing traditions such as putting aside the tradition of wearing gloves as she believed it would prevent a direct connection with the people she met, such as those affected by serious diseases like AIDS patients.[332][344] She used to wear certain types of clothes at charity events which were appropriate for the people she would meet, such as wearing colourful dresses and "jangling jewels" so she could easily play with children at hospitals.[332][344] According to Donatella Versace who worked closely with the Princess alongside her brother, Diana's interest and sense of curiosity about fashion grew significantly after her separation from Charles.[330] Versace also points out that "[she doesn't] think that anyone, before or after her, has done for fashion what Diana did".[330]

Catherine Walker was among Diana's favorite designers[343] with whom she worked to create her "royal uniform".[322] For her foreign tours and state visits, Walker and her husband used to do research and were determined to design clothes that would not outshine the Princess,[330] a viewpoint supported by Taki Theodoracopulos, who believes Diana did not want "to let her clothes wear her".[330] Eleri Lynn, curator of the exhibition Diana: Her Fashion Story, also believes that "[Diana] didn't want to be known as a clothes horse,"[332] and mentions that "the style [Catherine and Diana] created together was a very slender, fluid silhouette which did away with the frills and ruffles of the early '80s and created a sleek silhouette that really flattered the princess's frame and became a timeless look for her. A royal uniform if you like."[346]

Diana made her debut as a Sloane Ranger in 1979 with a gown by Regamus.[343] Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the Princess wore outfits and ensembles by numerous notable fashion designers.[347][348][349] She also wore ensembles by fashion companies such as Versace, Armani, Chanel, Dior and Clarks.[336][338][350] Among her iconic outfits are a decollete by David and Elizabeth Emanuel worn by a newly engaged Diana at a charity event,[345] a cocktail dress by Christina Stambolian, commonly known as the "Revenge Dress", which she wore after Charles's admission of adultery,[351] an evening gown by Victor Edelstein that she wore to a reception at the White House and later became known as the "Travolta dress",[336][322][343] and a Catherine Walker pearl-encrusted gown and jacket dubbed the "Elvis Dress",[350][343] which she wore for the first time on an official visit to Hong Kong.[332][352]

In early 1980s, Diana preferred to wear dresses with floral collars, pie-crust blouses, and pearls.[336][343][333] These items rapidly became fashion trends.[336] Copies of her Vogue-featured pink chiffon blouse by David and Elizabeth Emanuel, which appeared on the magazine's cover on her engagement announcement day, sold in the millions.[343] Her habit of wearing wide-shouldered gowns and lavish fabrics earned her the nickname "Dynasty Di".[322][332] In the years after her marriage and then her divorce, Diana grew more confident in her choices,[322][334][345] and her style underwent a change, with her new choices consisting of blazers, one-shoulder and off-shoulder dresses, two-tone themed suits, military-styled suits, and nude-colored outfits.[334] White shirt and jeans, plaid dresses, jumpsuits and sheath dresses were among the other fashion trends she tried.[334][353] Her way of dressing began to be influenced by other celebrities including Cindy Crawford, Madonna, Elizabeth Taylor, as well as many others.[343]

The Princess's influential short hairstyle was created by Sam McKnight after a Vogue shoot in 1990, which, in McKnight and Donatella Versace's opinion, brought her more liberty as "it always looked great".[330] The Princess reportedly did her own make up and would always have a hairstylist by her side before an event. She told McKnight: "It's not for me, Sam. It is for the people I visit or who come to see me. They don't want me in off-duty mode, they want a princess. Let's give them what they want."[330]

The Princess was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1989.[354] In 2003, VH1 ranked her at number nine on its 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons list, which recognizes "the folks that have significantly inspired and impacted American society".[355] In 2004, People cited her as one of the all-time most beautiful women.[356] In 2012, Time included Diana on its All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons list.[357]

In 2016, fashion designer Sharmadean Reid designed a collection of clothes for ASOS.com inspired by Diana's style.[337] "Di's incredible relationship with accessible sportswear through to luxury fashion forms the cornerstone of the collection and feels more modern than ever," Reid said about the Princess in a press release.[333]

Following the opening of an exhibition of Diana's clothes and dresses at Kensington Palace in 2017, Catherine Bennett of The Guardian said such exhibitions are among the suitable ways to commemorate public figures whose fashion styles were noted due to their achievements. The exhibition suggests to detractors who, like many other princesses, "looking lovely in different clothes was pretty much her life's work" which also brings interest in her clothing.[358]

Diana was an inspiration for Off-White's Spring 2018 show at Paris Fashion Week in 2017.[359] The designer Virgil Abloh used the Princess' signature looks as fragments to design new suits and attire.[360][361] Supermodel Naomi Campbell, dressed in a combination of white blazer and cropped spandex leggings in reference to Diana's formal and off-duty styles, closed off the show.[359][360] In 2019, Tory Burch used Diana's early '80s style as an inspiration for her Spring 2020 show at New York Fashion Week.[362]

Memorials

.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{display:flex;flex-direction:column}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{margin:1px;float:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader{clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100%}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:left;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center{text-align:center;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left{text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center{text-align:center}@media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner{width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow{justify-content:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle{float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption{text-align:center}}Round Oval lake at Althorp with the Diana memorial beyondMemorial in Harrods Department Store to Diana, Princess of Wales, and Dodi FayedTribute to Diana on 1998 Azerbaijan postage stampsUnveiling of a memorial to Diana in Ormenyes, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary

Immediately after her death, many sites around the world became briefly ad hoc memorials to Diana where the public left flowers and other tributes. The largest was outside the gates of Kensington Palace, where people continue to leave flowers and tributes. Permanent memorials include:

  • The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Gardens in Regent Centre Gardens Kirkintilloch
  • The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain in Hyde Park, London, opened by Queen Elizabeth II
  • The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Playground in Kensington Gardens, London
  • The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk, a circular path between Kensington Gardens, Green Park, Hyde Park, and St. James's Park, London
  • The Diana Memorial Award, established in 1999 and later relaunched in 2007 by Gordon Brown[363]
  • The Princess Diana Memorial Austria is the first memorial dedicated to Diana, Princess of Wales, in a German-speaking country. It is placed in the garden of Schloss Cobenzl in Vienna. It was raised by reporter Ewald Wurzinger.[364]

The Flame of Liberty was erected in 1989 on the Place de l'Alma in Paris above the entrance to the tunnel in which the fatal crash later occurred. It has become an unofficial memorial to Diana.[365][366] In addition, there are two memorials inside Harrods department store, commissioned by Dodi Fayed's father, who owned the store from 1985 to 2010. The first memorial is a pyramid-shaped display containing photos of the princess and al-Fayed's son, a wine glass said to be from their last dinner, and a ring purchased by Dodi the day prior to the crash. The second, Innocent Victims, unveiled in 2005, is a bronze statue of Fayed dancing with Diana on a beach beneath the wings of an albatross.[367] In January 2018, it was announced that the statue would be returned to the Al-Fayed family.[368]

Rosa 'Princess of Wales', a white blend rose cultivar, is named in honour of Diana.[369][370] She received it as a tribute for her 10-year cooperation with the British Lung Foundation.[369] It was bred by Harkness in the United Kingdom and introduced in 1997.[369][370] The nostalgic floribunda is also known as 'Hardinkum'.[371][370][369] It has a double bloom form, and a mild to strong fragrance.[369] The rose is said to be one of Diana's favourites.[370] After her death, the proceeds from selling the roses in 199899 were donated to the British Lung Foundation.[369] In 2002, it was granted the Award of Garden Merit by the Royal Horticultural Society.[372] Rosa 'Diana, Princess of Wales', a pink blend garden rose, was first introduced in 1998 at the British Embassy in the United States.[373] The classical hybrid tea rose was bred by Keith W. Zary of Jackson & Perkins and is also known under the names 'Elegant Lady' and 'Jacshaq'.[374][375][373] It has a classic bloom form with ivory petals, and a mild, sweet fragrance.[374][373] "15% of the retail price" for buying each of the roses was donated to the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund.[373] It was also not sold in the United Kingdom in order to prevent from creating a competition with Rosa 'Princess of Wales'.[373]

In 1998, Azermarka issued postage stamps commemorating Diana in Azerbaijan. The English text on souvenir sheets issued reads "DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES The Princess that (sic) captured people's hearts (19611997)".[376] Several other countries issued commemorative stamps that year, including Great Britain, Somalia, and Congo.[377] HayPost also issued a postage stamp commemorating Diana in Armenia at the same year.[378]

In November 2002, a ?4,000 bronze plaque was unveiled by Earl Spencer at Northampton Guildhall as a memorial to his sister.[379] In February 2013, OCAD University in Toronto announced that its new 25,000 square foot arts centre would be named the Princess of Wales Visual Arts Centre.[380] Princess Diana Drive was named in her memory in Trenton, New Jersey.[381] Diana's granddaughter, Charlotte Elizabeth Diana (born 2015),[382][383] and her niece, Charlotte Diana (born 2012),[384] are named after her.

In January 2017, Diana's sons commissioned a statue of their mother for Kensington Palace to commemorate the 20th anniversary of her death.[289] In an official statement released by Kensington Palace, William and Harry said "Our mother touched so many lives. We hope the statue will help all those who visit Kensington Palace to reflect on her life and her legacy."[289] The money will be raised through public donations, and a small committee consisting of close friends and advisers, including Diana's sister Lady Sarah McCorquodale, are said to be working on the project.[385] In December 2017, it was announced that Ian Rank-Broadley had been commissioned to execute the statue. Its completion is expected in 2019.[386][387]

Diana in contemporary art

Before and after her death, Diana has been depicted in contemporary art. The first biopics about Diana and Charles were Charles and Diana: A Royal Love Story and The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana that were broadcast on American TV channels on 17 and 20 September 1981, respectively.[388] In December 1992, ABC aired Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After, a TV movie about marital discord between Diana and Charles.[389] In the 1990s, British magazine Private Eye called her "Cheryl" and Prince Charles "Brian".[390]

In July 1999, Tracey Emin created a number of monoprint drawings featuring textual references about Diana's public and private life for Temple of Diana, a themed exhibition at The Blue Gallery, London. Works such as They Wanted You To Be Destroyed (1999)[391] related to Diana's bulimia, while others included affectionate texts such as Love Was on Your Side and Diana's Dress with puffy sleeves. Another text praised her selflessness The things you did to help other people, showing Diana in protective clothing walking through a minefield in Angola while another referenced the conspiracy theories. Of her drawings, Emin maintained "They're quite sentimental... and there's nothing cynical about it whatsoever."[392]

In 2005, Martin Sastre premiered during the Venice Biennale the film Diana: The Rose Conspiracy. This fictional work starts with the world discovering Diana alive and enjoying a happy undercover new life in a dangerous cantegril on the outskirts of Montevideo. Shot at an Uruguayan slum using a Diana impersonator from Sao Paulo, the film was selected by the Italian Art Critics Association as one of the Venice Biennial's best works.[393][394][395][396]

In 2007, following an earlier series referencing the conspiracy theories, Stella Vine created a series of Diana paintings for her first major solo exhibition at Modern Art Oxford gallery.[397][398] Vine intended to portray Diana's combined strength and vulnerability as well as her closeness to her two sons.[399] The works, all completed in 2007, included Diana branches, Diana family picnic, Diana veil, Diana crash and Diana pram, which incorporates the quotation "I vow to thee my country".[400][401] Vine asserted her own abiding attraction to "the beauty and the tragedy of Diana's life".[399]

The 2007 docudrama Diana: Last Days of a Princess details the final two months of her life. She is portrayed by Irish actress Genevieve O'Reilly.[402] On an October 2007 episode of The Chaser's War on Everything, Andrew Hansen mocked Diana in his "Eulogy Song", which immediately created considerable controversy in the Australian media.[403]

In 2017, Prince William and Prince Harry commissioned two documentaries to mark the 20th anniversary of her death. The first of the two, Diana, Our Mother: Her Life and Legacy, was broadcast on ITV and HBO on 24 July 2017.[404][405] This film focuses on Diana's legacy and humanitarian efforts for causes such as AIDS, landmines, homelessness and cancer. The second documentary, Diana, 7 Days, aired on 27 August on BBC and focused on Diana's death and the subsequent outpouring of grief.[406]

Actresses who have portrayed Diana include Serena Scott Thomas (in Diana: Her True Story),[407] Julie Cox (in Princess in Love),[408] Amy Seccombe (in Diana: A Tribute to the People's Princess),[409] Genevieve O'Reilly (in Diana: Last Days of a Princess),[410][402] Nathalie Brocker (in The Murder of Princess Diana),[411] and Naomi Watts (in Diana).[412] Emma Corrin will portray her in upcoming season of the TV series The Crown.[413]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Royal monogram
  • 1 July 1961 9 June 1975: The Honourable Diana Frances Spencer
  • 9 June 1975 29 July 1981: Lady Diana Frances Spencer
  • 29 July 1981 28 August 1996: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
    • in Scotland: 29 July 1981 28 August 1996: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Rothesay
  • 28 August 1996 31 August 1997: Diana, Princess of Wales

Posthumously, as in life, she is most popularly referred to as "Princess Diana", a title not formally correct and one she never held.[a] She is still sometimes referred to in the media as "Lady Diana Spencer" or simply as "Lady Di". In a speech after her death, then-Prime Minister Tony Blair referred to Diana as the People's Princess.[414]

Honours

See also: List of honours of the British royal family by country Orders
  • GBR Family Order Elizabeth II BAR.png 1981: Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II
Foreign honours
  • Egypt 1982: Supreme Class of the Order of the Virtues (or Order of al-Kamal)[123]
  • Netherlands 18 November 1982: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown, bestowed by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands[123]
Appointments
  • 1988: Royal Bencher of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple[415]
Fellowships
  • 1988: The Royal College of Surgeons of England, Honorary Fellow in Dental Surgery[416]
Others
  • 1981: Honorary Freeman of the City of Cardiff[417]
  • 1987: Honorary Freeman of the City of London[162]
  • 1989: Honorary Freeman of the Northampton Borough[379]
  • 1992: Honorary Freeman of the City of Portsmouth[418]

Honorary military appointments

The Princess of Wales held the following military appointments:

Australia Australia
  • Australia: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Survey Corps[419]
Canada Canada
  • Canada: Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess of Wales Own Regiment[130]
  • Canada: Colonel-in-Chief of the West Nova Scotia Regiment
United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom: Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment[249]
  • United Kingdom: Colonel-in-Chief of the Light Dragoons[249]
  • United Kingdom: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Hampshire Regiment[130]
  • United Kingdom: Colonel-in-Chief of the 13th/18th Royal Hussars (Queen Mary's Own)[130]
  • United Kingdom: Honorary Air Commodore, RAF Wittering[420]

Diana gave up these appointments following her divorce.[21][105]

Arms

Coat of arms of Diana, Princess of Wales Coat of Arms of Diana, Princess of Wales (1981-1996).svg Notes Coat of Arms of Diana, Princess of Wales (1996-1997).svg During her marriage, Diana used the arms of the Prince of Wales impaled (side by side) with those of her father. After her divorce, she resumed her paternal arms with the addition of a royal coronet.[421] Adopted 1981 Coronet Coronet of the Prince of Wales Escutcheon Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langed azure 2nd or a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent (the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom), the whole difference with a label of three points Argent; with an inescutcheon of four lions passant guardant, in gold and red, counterchanged, surmounted by the coronet of the heir (for the Principality of Wales); impaled with a shield quarterly 1st and 4th Argent 2nd and 3rd Gules a fret Or overall a bend Sable charged with three escallops Argent. Supporters Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or crowned with the coronet of the Prince of Wales Proper, sinister a griffin winged and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patee and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or Motto DIEU DEFEND LE DROIT
(Anglo-Norman: God defends the right) Symbolism Coat of Arms of Lady Diana Spencer.svg The Spencers were granted a coat of arms in 1504 (Azure a fess Ermine between 6 sea-mews' heads erased Argent), which bears no resemblance to that used by the family after c. 1595, which was derived from the Despencer arms. Writer J.H. Round argued that the Despencer descent was fabricated by Richard Lee, a corrupt Clarencieux King of Arms.[422] Previous versions Diana's coat of arms before her marriage was based on the Spencer coat of arms. It depicted a lozenge shaped shield of arms hanging from a blue ribbon, which symbolised her unmarried state. It included three escallops argent of the Spencer coat of arms. This version was used only before her marriage and was also applied by her sisters.

Descendants

Name Birth Marriage Issue Date Spouse Prince William, Duke of Cambridge 21 June 1982 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton Prince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
Prince Louis of Cambridge Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 15 September 1984 19 May 2018 Meghan Markle Archie Mountbatten-Windsor

Ancestry

Diana was born into the British Spencer family, different branches of which hold the titles of Duke of Marlborough, Earl Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, and Baron Churchill of Whichwood.[423][424] The Spencers claimed descent from a cadet branch of the powerful medieval Despenser family, but its validity is questioned.[425] Her great-grandmother was Margaret Baring, a member of the German-British Baring family of bankers and the daughter of Edward Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke.[426][427] Diana's distant noble ancestors included the first Duke and Duchess of Marlborough.[428] Diana and Charles were distantly related, as they were both descended from the House of Tudor through Henry VII of England.[429] She was also descended from the House of Stuart through Charles II of England by Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, and Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and his brother James II of England by Henrietta FitzJames.[21][18][430] Other noble ancestors include Margaret Kerdeston, granddaughter of Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk; Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I of England; and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, a descendant of Edward III of England through his son Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.[431][432][433] Diana's Scottish roots came from her maternal grandmother, Lady Fermoy.[431] Among her Scottish ancestors were Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon, and his wife Jane, and Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll.[431]

Diana's American lineage came from her great-grandmother Frances Ellen Work, daughter of wealthy American stockbroker Franklin H. Work from Ohio, who was married to her great-grandfather James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy, an Irish peer.[431][434] Diana's fourth great-grandmother in her direct maternal line, Eliza Kewark, was of Indian descent.[435][436][437][438][439]

.mw-parser-output table.ahnentafel{border-collapse:separate;border-spacing:0;line-height:130%}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel tr{text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel-t{border-top:#000 solid 1px;border-left:#000 solid 1px}.mw-parser-output .ahnentafel-b{border-bottom:#000 solid 1px;border-left:#000 solid 1px}Ancestors of Diana, Princess of Wales[440][441] 8. Charles Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer 4. Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer 9. The Honorable Margaret Baring 2. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer 10. James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn 5. Lady Cynthia Hamilton 11. Lady Rosalind Bingham 1. Diana, Princess of Wales 12. James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy 6. Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy 13. Frances Ellen Work 3. The Honourable Frances Roche 14. William Smith Gill 7. Ruth Gill 15. Ruth Littlejohn

Notes

^ Often used by the public and media, the style "Princess Diana" is incorrect. With rare exceptions by permission of the Sovereign (such as Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester), only women born to the title (such as Princess Anne) may use it before their given names. After her divorce in 1996, Diana was officially styled Diana, Princess of Wales, having lost the prefix "HRH".

References

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Bibliography

  • Bradford, Sarah (2006). Diana. New York; Toronto; London: Viking. ISBN978-0-670-03807-7.
  • Brandreth, Gyles (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Century. ISBN0-7126-6103-4.
  • Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. London; New York: Doubleday. ISBN978-0-385-51708-9.
  • Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN0-688-12996-X.
  • Morton, Andrew (1997) [1992]. Diana: Her True Story In Her Own Words. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN0-684-85080-X.
  • Smith, Sally Bedell (2000) [1999]. Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN978-0-451-20108-9.
  • Williamson, D. (1981a). "The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer". Genealogist's Magazine. 20 (6): 192199.
  • Williamson, D. (1981b). "The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer". Genealogist's Magazine. 20 (8): 281282.

Further reading

  • Anderson, Christopher (2001). Diana's Boys: William and Harry and the Mother they Loved (1st ed.). United States: William Morrow. ISBN978-0-688-17204-6.
  • Bedell Smith, Sally (1999). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Times Books. ISBN0-8129-3030-4.
  • Brennan, Kristine (1998). Diana, Princess of Wales. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. ISBN0-7910-4714-8.
  • Burrell, Paul (2003). A Royal Duty. United States: HarperCollins Entertainment. ISBN978-0-00-725263-3.
  • Burrell, Paul (2007). The Way We Were: Remembering Diana. United States: HarperCollins Entertainment. ISBN978-0-06-113895-9.
  • Caradec'h, Jean-Michel (2006). Diana. L'enquete criminelle (in French). Neuilly-sur-Seine: Michel Lafon. ISBN978-2-7499-0479-5.
  • Corby, Tom (1997). Diana, Princess of Wales: A Tribute. United States: Benford Books. ISBN978-1-56649-599-8.
  • Coward, Rosalind (2004). Diana: The Portrait. United Kingdom (other publishers worldwide): HarperCollins. ISBN0-00-718203-1.
  • Davies, Jude (2001). Diana, A Cultural History: Gender, Race, Nation, and the People's Princess. Houndmills, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave. ISBN0-333-73688-5. OCLC46565010.
  • Denney, Colleen (2005). Representing Diana, Princess of Wales: Cultural Memory and Fairy Tales Revisited. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN0-8386-4023-0. OCLC56490960.
  • Edwards, Anne (2001). Ever After: Diana and the Life She Led. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN978-0-312-25314-1. OCLC43867312.
  • Frum, David (2000). How We Got bare: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. ISBN0-465-04195-7.
  • Mattern, Joanne (2006). Princess Diana. DK Biography. New York: DK Publishing. ISBN978-0-756-61614-4.
  • Morton, Andrew (2004). Diana: In Pursuit of Love. United States: Michael O'Mara Books. ISBN978-1-84317-084-6.
  • Rees-Jones, Trevor (2000). The Bodyguard's Story: Diana, the Crash, and the Sole Survivor. United States: Little, Brown. ISBN978-0-316-85508-2.
  • Steinberg, Deborah Lynn (1999). Mourning Diana: Nation, Culture and the Performance of Grief. London: Routledge. ISBN0-415-19393-1.
  • Taylor, John A. (2000). Diana, Self-Interest, and British National Identity. Westport, CN: Praeger. ISBN0-275-96826-X. OCLC42935749.
  • Thomas, James (2002). Diana's Mourning: A People's History. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN0-7083-1753-7. OCLC50099981.
  • Turnock, Robert (2000). Interpreting Diana: Television Audiences and the Death of a Princess. London: British Film Institute. ISBN0-85170-788-2. OCLC43819614.

External links

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  • Diana, Princess of Wales at the Official website of the Royal Family
  • Diana, princess of Wales at the Encyclop?dia Britannica
  • Portraits of Diana, Princess of Wales at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata
  • Coroner's Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed at National Archives
  • The Goddess of Domestic Tribulations by Theodore Dalrymple Essay on the cultural significance of Princess Diana. Theodore Dalrymple. City Journal at City-journal.com.
  • "Ten Years On: Why Princess Diana Mattered". Time.
  • BBC mini-site Diana One Year On pictures of Diana, Panorama interview video extracts, coverage of the funeral, how the UK newspapers reported her death
  • Works by or about Diana, Princess of Wales in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Diana, Princess of Wales on IMDb
  • FBI Records: The Vault Diana, Princess of Wales at fbi.gov
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Diana, Princess of WalesTitles
  • Princess of Wales
  • Duchess of Cornwall
  • Duchess of Rothesay
  • Countess of Chester
  • Countess of Carrick
  • Baroness of Renfrew
  • Lady of the Isles
  • Princess of Scotland
Coat of Arms of Diana, Princess of Wales (1981-1996).svg
Coat of Arms of Diana, Princess of Wales (1996-1997).svgFamily
  • Charles, Prince of Wales (former husband)
  • Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (elder son)
  • Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (younger son)
  • John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer (father)
  • Frances Shand Kydd (mother)
  • Lady Sarah McCorquodale (sister)
  • Jane Fellowes, Baroness Fellowes (sister)
  • Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer (brother)
Extended family
  • Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer (paternal grandfather)
  • Cynthia Spencer, Countess Spencer (paternal grandmother)
  • Maurice Roche, 4th Baron Fermoy (maternal grandfather)
  • Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy (maternal grandmother)
  • Edmund Roche, 5th Baron Fermoy (maternal uncle)
  • Hasnat Khan (former partner)
Life events
  • Wedding
    • jewels
    • guest list
    • dress
  • Squidgygate
Charities
  • International Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Landmine Survivors Network
  • Barnardo's
  • Centrepoint
  • Turning Point
  • National AIDS Trust
  • The Leprosy Mission
  • English National Ballet
  • The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
  • Great Ormond Street Hospital
Death
  • Operation Paget
  • Funeral
  • Conspiracy theories
People
  • Dodi Fayed
  • Henri Paul
  • Trevor Rees-Jones
Memorials
  • Candle in the Wind
  • Concert for Diana
  • Diana Memorial Award
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Hospital
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Playground
  • Diana, Princess of Wales: Tribute
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Tribute Concert
  • Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk
  • Flame of Liberty (unofficial)
  • Innocent Victims
  • Princess Diana Memorial
  • Princess of Wales Bridge
  • Princess of Wales Theatre
  • The New School at West Heath
Popular cultureBooks
  • Diana in Search of Herself
  • 69 Things to Do with a Dead Princess
  • If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things
  • The Little White Car
  • Princess Diana's Revenge
  • The Diana Chronicles
  • The Accident Man
  • Untold Story
  • The Murder of Princess Diana
  • Diana: Closely Guarded Secret
Film and
television
  • The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana
  • Diana: Her True Story
  • Diana: A Tribute to the People's Princess
  • Diana: The Rose Conspiracy
  • The Queen
  • Diana: Last Days of a Princess
  • The Murder of Princess Diana
  • Unlawful Killing
  • Diana
  • Diana, Our Mother: Her Life and Legacy
  • Diana: In Her Own Words
  • Diana, 7 Days
Other
  • Diana, Princess of Wales (Bryan Organ portrait)
  • Diana: Warrior Princess
  • Her Royal Highness..?
  • Henrietta Hunter
  • Lady Di (EastEnders)
  • Diana (2019 musical)
  • Travolta dress
  • Lady Dior
Links to related articles
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British princesses by marriage1st generation
  • Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
2nd generation
  • Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
3rd generation
  • Maria Waldegrave
  • Anne Horton
4th generation
  • Duchess Caroline of Brunswick
  • Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
  • Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
  • Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
  • Duchess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
  • Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel
  • The Princess Mary*
5th generation
  • Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
6th generation
  • Princess Alexandra of Denmark
  • Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
  • Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
  • Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont
  • Princess Thyra of Denmark
7th generation
  • Princess Mary of Teck
  • Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife*
  • Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein
  • Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
8th generation
  • Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
  • Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott
  • Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark
9th generation
  • Birgitte van Deurs
  • Katharine Worsley
  • Baroness Marie Christine von Reibnitz
10th generation
  • Lady Diana Spencer
  • Camilla Parker Bowles
  • Sarah Ferguson
  • Sophie Rhys-Jones
11th generation
  • Catherine Middleton
  • Meghan Markle
* also a British princess in her own right
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Princesses of Wales and Duchesses of Cornwall
  • Joan, Countess of Kent (13611376)
  • Lady Cecily Neville (1460; disputed)
  • Lady Anne Neville (14701471)
  • Infanta Catherine of Aragon (15011502)
  • Princess Caroline of Ansbach (17141727)
  • Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (17361751)
  • Princess Caroline of Brunswick (17951820)
  • Princess Alexandra of Denmark (18631901)
  • Princess Mary of Teck (19011910)
  • Lady Diana Spencer (19811996)
  • Camilla Parker Bowles* (2005present)
* Though legally Princess of Wales, she does not use the title
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Duchesses of Rothesay
  • Marjorie Douglas (14001402)
  • Princess Caroline of Ansbach (17141727)
  • Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (17361751)
  • Princess Caroline of Brunswick (17951820)
  • Princess Alexandra of Denmark (18631901)
  • Princess Mary of Teck (19011910)
  • Lady Diana Spencer (19811996)
  • Camilla Parker Bowles (2005present)
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • BNE: XX1157768
  • BNF: cb12404450r (data)
  • GND: 118525123
  • ISNI: 0000 0001 2146 5032
  • LCCN: n81073496
  • MusicBrainz: 5c216e1a-cfda-445a-b6cd-c30b90b12bb8
  • NDL: 00620582
  • NKC: jn20000700397
  • NLA: 35793589
  • NLI: 000039314
  • NLK: KAC201619673
  • NTA: 097063002
  • RSL: 000082502
  • ICCU: IT\ICCU\DDSV\209956
  • SELIBR: 205002
  • SNAC: w6p283x3
  • SUDOC: 027437043
  • TePapa: 36723
  • Trove: 1090403
  • ULAN: 500257633
  • VIAF: 107032638
  • WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 107032638
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diana,_Princess_of_Wales&oldid=935407941" Princess Dianas Death ScenePhotos

Gallery: 1/8

Princess Diana's Death

On August 31, 1997, The Princess of Wales Diana died at the young age of 36, leaving behind sons Prince William and Harry. Princess Diana died as a result of injuries sustained after a car crash inside the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, France. Diana's boyfriend Dodi Fayed and the driver, Henri Paul, were pronounced dead at the scene. Princess Diana's bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones, was the only survivor of the accident. Initially, the cause of the accident was thought to be because of paparazzi, who were following the car, but later, it was revealed that the wreck wascaused by Paul. He reportedly must have lost control of the car when it was at a high speed while he was drunk. Prince William was 15 years old and Harry was just 12 years old at the time of their mother's death. In a recent interview with GQ UK, Prince William said that it's taken him 20 years to come to terms with his mother's death. William explained: It has taken me almost 20 years to get to that stage. I still find it difficult now because at the time it was so raw. And also, it is not like most peoples grief, because everyone else knows about it, everyone knows the story, everyone knows her. He also said that, when it comes to raising his kids: I would like to have had her advice. I would love her to have met Catherine and to have seen the children grow up, he told the magazine, which will hit newsstands on Thursday. It makes me sad that she wont, that they will never know her. I could not do my job without the stability of the family. Stability at home is so important to me. I want to bring up my children in a happy, stable, secure world and that is so important to both of us as parents. For more details of the tragic incident, click through photos from the scene of the crash in 1997. (Getty)

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