Grammar adverb and adjective clauses

12.01.2020
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Daily Grammar - Lesson 276 - Parts of the Sentence

Parts of the Sentence - Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses

The adjective clause is a dependent clauseA clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. A dependent clause must be attached to the independent clause to make sense. It is always used as some part of speech. A dependent clause can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.  Source: Lesson 246 that modifies a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16 or a pronounA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21.  It will begin with a relative pronounRelative pronouns join dependent clauses to independent clauses. They are who, whose, whom, which, and that.  Source: Lesson 26 (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84 (when and where).  Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause.  The introductory word will always rename the word that it follows and modifies except when used with a prepositionA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 176 which will come between the introductory word and the word it renames.

Examples:
The student whose hand was upadjective clause gave  
the wrong answer.

Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidenceadjective clause.

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjectiveAdjectives modify or affect the meaning of nouns and pronouns and tell us which, whose, what kind, and how many about the nouns or pronouns they modify. They come before the noun or pronoun they modify.  Source: Lesson 151, or another adverbAdverbs are words that modify (1) verbs, (2) adjectives, and (3) other adverbs. They tell how (manner), when (time), where (place), how much (degree), and why (cause). Source: Lesson 161.  It usually modifies the verb.  Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionA conjunction is a word that joins other words, phrases, or clauses. Subordinate conjunctions join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Some common subordinate conjunctions are after, although, as, as if, because, before, if, since, so that, than, unless, until, when, where, and while.
Source: Lesson 84 including after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.

Example:
They arrived before the game had endedadverb clause.

 - before the game had ended modifies arrived

A noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used in the same way as a nounA noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: man, city, book, and courage.  Source: Lesson 16 or pronounA pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or a group of words used as a noun.
Source: Lesson 21. It can be a subjectThe subject tells who or what about the verb.  Source: Lesson 95, predicate nominativeA predicate nominative or predicate noun completes a linking verb and renames the subject. It is a complement or completer because it completes the verb. Predicate nominatives complete only linking verbs. The verb in a sentence having a predicate nominative can always be replaced by the word equals.  Source: Lesson 102, direct objectA direct object receives the action performed by the subject. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb. Another way of saying it is that the subject does the verb to the direct object.
Source: Lesson 109, appositiveAn appositive is a word or group of words that identifies or renames the noun or pronoun that it follows. It is set off by commas unless closely tied to the word that it identifies or renames. ("Closely tied" means that it is needed to identify the word.) An appositive can follow any noun or pronoun.  Source: Lesson 128, indirect objectAn indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object.  Source: Lesson 191, or object of the prepositionA preposition is a word that begins a prepositional phrase and shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. A preposition must always have an object.  Source: Lesson 180.  Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. To check if the dependent clause is a noun clause, substitute the clause with the pronoun it or the proper form of the pronouns he or she.

Example:
I know who said thatnoun clause.   
=  I know it.

Whoever said itnoun clause is wrong.   
=  He is wrong.

Instructions: Find the adjective, adverb, or noun clauses in these sentences.  If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause tell how they are used (subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition).

1. Donna is my mother-in-law who died several years ago.

Show Answer Donna is my mother-in-law who died several years agoadjective clause.

 - who died several years ago modifies mother-in-lawPN

2. Atlantic City is where the Boardwalk is located.

Show Answer Atlantic City is where the Boardwalk is locatednoun clause.

 - where the Boardwalk is located  =  predicate nominative

3. The man had another back operation because he ruptured another disk.

Show Answer The man had another back operation because he ruptured another diskadverb clause.

 - because he ruptured another disk modifies hadV

4. A nurse can find a job wherever she goes.

Show Answer A nurse can find a job wherever she goesadverb clause.

 - wherever she goes modifies can findV

5. Now I understand why you didn't want to attend.

Show Answer Now I understand why you didn't want to attendnoun clause.

 - why you didn't want to attend  =  direct object

Related links: Lessons 255, 265, 270, and 275


grammar adverb and adjective clauses
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What is an adverb clause?

An adverb clause is a group of words that is used to change or qualify the meaning of an adjective, a verb, a clause, another adverb, or any other type of word or phrase with the exception of determiners and adjectives that directly modify nouns.

Adverb clauses always meet three requirements:

  • First, an adverb clause always contains a subject and a verb.
  • Second, adverb clauses contain subordinate conjunctions that prevent them from containing complete thoughts and becoming full sentences.
  • Third, all adverb clauses answer one of the classic “adverb questions:” When? Why? How? Where?

Examples of Adverb Clauses

As you read the following adverb clause examples, you’ll notice how these useful phrases modify other words and phrases by providing interesting information about the place, time, manner, certainty, frequency, or other circumstances of activity denoted by the verbs or verb phrases in the sentences. While adverb clauses are slightly more complicated than simple adverbs, they are worth learning about.

The adverb clauses in these examples are italicized for easy identification.

Jennifer scrubbed the bathtub until her arms ached. (This adverb clause describes how Jennifer scrubbed.) The dogs started chasing my car once they saw it turn the corner. (This adverb clause describes when the dogs started chasing my car.) After having my wisdom teeth out, I had a milkshake for dinner because I couldn’t chew anything. (This adverb clause describes why I had a milkshake for dinner.)

Adverb Clause Exercises

The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about how adverb clauses work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

1. The women took notes ________________________.

a. While being taught to cook

b. Steadily

c. Noisily

d. For their children

Answer: A. the women took notes while being taught to cook. (This adverb clause describes when the women took notes.)

2. We will go to the game __________________.

a. Friday

b. Even if it rains

c. Saturday

d. Sometime

Answer: B. We will go to the game even if it rains. (This adverb clause describes a certain condition, or a “how.”)

3. You can put the package ____________________.

a. Outside

b. Inside

c. Wherever you like

d. Somewhere

Answer: C. You can put the package wherever you like. (This adverb clause denotes a place, even though that place is not specific.)

4. ___________________, you will not be punished.

a. Since you have apologized

b. We decided

c. He told me

d. You are lucky

Answer: A. Since you have apologized, you will not be punished. (This adverb clause denotes a reason or a “why.”)

5. She was so tired _____________________.

a. She left

b. She cried

c. Today

d. That she could not stand

Answer: D. She was so tired that she could not stand. (This adverb clause denotes a result of being tired or a “how.”)

Adverb Clauses List

When creating adverb clauses, feel free to be creative. The following examples will help you get started:

  • Even when I’m sick
  • When you have finished working
  • Whenever you like
  • Wherever we prefer
  • Since I returned from vacation
  • As she was not there
  • Since you always do well
  • Before entering high school
  • After I return
  • So that he would understand


grammar adverb and adjective clauses


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