Illinois senator barack obama

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2004 United States Senate election in Illinois
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November 2, 2004 BarackObama2005portrait (cropped).jpgAlan Keyes speech (cropped).jpg Nominee Barack Obama Alan Keyes Party Democratic Republican Popularvote 3,597,456 1,390,690 Percentage 70.0% 27.0%
Illinois Senate Election Results by County, 2004.svgCounty Results
Obama: 40-50% 5060% 6070% 7080% 8090%
Keyes: 5060% 6070%
U.S. Senator before election

Peter Fitzgerald
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Barack Obama
Democratic

The 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois was held on November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Peter Fitzgerald decided to retire after one term. The Democratic and Republican primary elections were held in March, which included a total of 15 candidates who combined to spend a record total of over $60 million seeking the open seat.

On March 16, 2004, State Senator Barack Obama won the Democratic primary, and businessman Jack Ryan won the Republican primary. Three months later, Ryan announced his withdrawal from the race four days after the Chicago Tribune persuaded a California court to release records from Ryan's divorce case, which included allegations that Ryan had pressured his then-wife actress Jeri Ryan to perform sexual acts in public.

Six weeks later, the Illinois Republican State Central Committee chose former Diplomat Alan Keyes to replace Ryan as the Republican candidate. The election was the first for the U.S. Senate in which both major party candidates were African American. Obama won by 43%, the largest margin of victory in the state history of U.S. Senate elections, and served in the Senate for four years until he was elected President in 2008. The inequality in the candidates spending for the fall elections $14,244,768 by Obama and $2,545,325 by Keyes is also among the largest in history in both absolute and relative terms.[1]

Democratic primary

Candidates

Declared

  • Gery Chico, President of the Chicago Board of Education
  • Blair Hull, businessman
  • Daniel Hynes, State Comptroller
  • Barack Obama, State Senator and future President of the United States
  • Maria Pappas, Cook County Treasurer
  • Nancy Skinner, radio personality
  • Joyce Washington, health care executive
  • Estella Johnson Hunt (write-in)

Withdrew

  • Matt O'Shea, Mayor of Metamora, Illinois. He withdrew December 1, 2003 due to poor polling numbers. He endorsed Gery Chico.[2]

Source:[3]

Campaign

Obama float at the 2004 Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic

Fitzgerald's predecessor, Democrat Carol Moseley Braun, declined to run. Barack Obama, a member of the Illinois Senate since 1997 and an unsuccessful 2000 Democratic primary challenger to four-term incumbent U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush for Rush's U.S House seat, launched a campaign committee at the beginning of July 2002 to run for the U.S. Senate, 21 months before the March 2004 primary,[4] and two months later had David Axelrod lined up to do his campaign media.[5] Obama formally announced his candidacy on January 21, 2003,[6] four days after former U.S. Sen. Carol Moseley Braun announced she would not seek a rematch with U.S. Sen. Peter Fitzgerald.[7]

On April 15, 2003, with six Democrats already running and three Republicans threatening to run against him,[8] incumbent Fitzgerald announced he would not seek a second term in 2004,[9] and three weeks later popular Republican former Governor Jim Edgar declined to run,[10] leading to wide open Democratic and Republican primary races with 15 candidates, including 7 millionaires[11] (triggering the first application of the Millionaires' Amendment of the 2002 McCainFeingold Act), in the most expensive Senate primary in U.S. history.[12]

Obama touted his legislative experience and early public opposition to the Iraq War to distinguish himself from his Democratic primary rivals. Illinois Comptroller Dan Hynes won the endorsement of the AFL-CIO. Obama succeeded in obtaining the support of three of the state's largest and most active member unions: AFSCME, SEIU, and the Illinois Federation of Teachers. Hynes and multimillionaire former securities trader Blair Hull each won the endorsements of two of the nine Democratic Illinois members of the US House of Representatives. Obama had the endorsements of four: Jesse Jackson, Jr., Danny Davis, Lane Evans, and Jan Schakowsky.

Obama surged into the lead after he finally began television advertising in Chicago in the final three weeks of the campaign, which was expanded to downstate Illinois during the last six days of the campaign. The ads included strong endorsements by the five largest newspapers in Illinoisthe Chicago Tribune, Chicago Sun-Times, Daily Herald, The Rockford Register Star, and Peoria Journal Starand a testimonial by Sheila Simon that Obama was "cut from that same cloth" as her father, the late former U.S. Senator Paul Simon, who had planned to endorse and campaign for Obama before his unexpected death in December 2003.[13]

Results

On March 16, 2004, Obama won the Democratic primary by an unexpected landslidereceiving 53% of the vote, 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival, with a vote total that nearly equaled that of all eight Republican candidates combinedwhich overnight made him a rising star in the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.[14][15] The Democratic primary election, including seven candidates who combined to spend over $46 million, was the most expensive U.S. Senate primary election in history.

Democratic Primary, United States Senate, March 16, 2004 Party Candidate Votes % Democratic Barack Obama 655,923 52.8% Democratic Daniel W. Hynes 294,717 23.7% Democratic M. Blair Hull 134,453 10.8% Democratic Maria Pappas 74,987 6.0% Democratic Gery Chico 53,433 4.3% Democratic Nancy Skinner 16,098 1.3% Democratic Joyce Washington 13,375 1.1% Democratic Estella Johnson-Hunt (write-in) 10 0.0% Majority 361,206 29.4% Turnout 1,242,996

Republican primary

Candidates

  • John Borling, Air Force veteran
  • Norm Hill, Army veteran
  • Chirinjeev Kathuria, businessman
  • Andrew McKenna, businessman
  • Jim Oberweis, businessman
  • Steve Rauschenberger, State Senator
  • Jack Ryan, businessman
  • Jonathan C. Wright, former State Representative

Campaign

GOP frontrunner Jack Ryan had divorced actress Jeri Ryan in 1999, and the records of the divorce were sealed at their mutual request. Five years later, when Ryan's Senate campaign began, the Chicago Tribune newspaper and WLS-TV, the local ABC affiliate, sought to have the records released. On March 3, 2004, several of Ryan's GOP primary opponents urged Ryan to release the records.[16] Both Ryan and his wife agreed to make their divorce records public, but not make the child custody records public, claiming that the custody records could be harmful to their son if released. Ryan went on to win the GOP primary on March 16, 2004 defeating his nearest competitor, Jim Oberweis, by twelve percentage points.[17]

Ryan was a proponent of across-the-board tax cuts and tort reform, an effort to limit payout in medical malpractice lawsuits. He was also a proponent of school choice and supported vouchers for private school students.

Oberweis's 2004 campaign was notable for a television commercial where he flew in a helicopter over Chicago's Soldier Field, and claimed enough illegal immigrants came into America in a week (10,000 a day) to fill the stadium's 61,500 seats.[18][19] Oberweis was also fined $21,000 by the Federal Election Commission for a commercial for his dairy that ran during his 2004 Senate campaign. The FEC ruled that the commercial wrongly benefited his campaign and constituted a corporate contribution, thus violating campaign law.[20]

Results

Republican Primary, United States Senate, March 16, 2004 Party Candidate Votes % Republican Jack Ryan 234,791 35.5% Republican Jim Oberweis 155,794 23.5% Republican Steven J. Rauschenberger 132,655 20.0% Republican Andrew McKenna 97,238 14.7% Republican Jonathan C. Wright 17,189 2.6% Republican John Borling 13,390 2.0% Republican Norm Hill 5,637 0.9% Republican Chirinjeev Kathuria 5,110 0.8% Majority 78,997 11.9% Turnout 661,804

General election

Obama vs. Ryan

As a result of the GOP and Democratic primaries, Democrat Barack Obama was pitted against Republican Jack Ryan.

Ryan trailed Obama in early polls, after the media reported that Ryan had assigned Justin Warfel, a Ryan campaign worker, to track Obama's appearances.[21] The tactic backfired when many people, including Ryan's supporters, criticized this activity. Ryan's spokesman apologized, and promised that Warfel would give Obama more space. Obama acknowledged that it is standard practice to film an opponent in public, and Obama said he was satisfied with Ryan's decision to have Warfel back off.[21]

As the campaign progressed, the lawsuit brought by the Chicago Tribune to open child custody files from Ryan's divorce was still continuing. Barack Obama's backers emailed reporters about the divorce controversy, but refrained from on-the-record commentary.[22] On March 29, 2004, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Robert Schnider ruled that several of the Ryans' divorce records should be opened to the public, and ruled that a court-appointed referee would later decide which custody files should remain sealed to protect the interests of Ryan's young child.[23] A few days later, on April 2, 2004, Barack Obama changed his position about the Ryans' soon-to-be-released divorce records, and called on Democrats to not inject them into the campaign.[22]

On June 22, 2004, after receiving the report from the court appointed referee, the judge released the files that were deemed consistent with the interests of Ryan's young child. In those files, Jeri Ryan alleged that Jack Ryan had taken her to sex clubs in several cities, intending for them to have sex in public.[24][25]

The decision to release the files generated much controversy because it went against both parents' direct request, and because it reversed the earlier decision to seal the papers in the best interest of the child. Jim Oberweis, Ryan's defeated GOP opponent, commented that "these are allegations made in a divorce hearing, and we all know people tend to say things that aren't necessarily true in divorce proceedings when there is money involved and custody of children involved."[24]

Although their sensational nature made the revelations fodder for tabloid and television programs specializing in such stories, the files were also newsworthy because of questions about whether Ryan had accurately described the documents to GOP party leaders. Prior to release of the documents, Ryan had told leading Republicans that five percent of the divorce file could cause problems for his campaign.[26] But after the documents were released, GOP officials including state GOP Chair Judy Baar Topinka said they felt Ryan had misleadingly indicated the divorce records would not be embarrassing.[27]

That charge of dishonesty led to intensifying calls for Ryan's withdrawal, though Topinka, who was considering running herself, said after the June 25 withdrawal that Ryan's "decision was a personal one" and that the state GOP had not pressured Ryan to drop out.[28] Ryan's campaign ended less than a week after the custody records were opened, and Ryan officially filed the documentation to withdraw on July 29, 2004. Obama was left without an opponent.

Obama vs. Keyes

The Illinois Republican State Central Committee chose former diplomat Alan Keyes to replace Ryan as the Republican candidate after former governor Jim Edgar, state treasurer Judy Baar Topinka and former Chicago Bears head coach Mike Ditka declined to run. [29]. Keyes, a conservative Republican, faced an uphill battle. First, Keyes, a native of Maryland, had almost no ties to Illinois. He unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate in Maryland twice, losing in landslides both times, and had made unsuccessful bids for the Republican presidential nomination in 1996 and 2000.[30]. Second, the lack of a serious opponent allowed Obama to campaign throughout the more conservative downstate regions to build up name recognition. Third, Keyes was seen as a carpetbagger, only establishing legal residency in Calumet City, Illinois days before running.

The Chicago Tribune in an editorial, stated that "Mr. Keyes may have noticed a large body of water as he flew into O'Hare. That is called Lake Michigan."[31] In 2000, Keyes attacked Hillary Clinton for running for US Senator from New York even though she had never lived there, calling her a carpetbagger.[32] Keyes attacked Barack Obama for voting against a bill that would have outlawed a form of late-term abortion.[33]

Race became an issue in the contest between the two black candidates when Keyes claimed that he, not Obama, was the true "African-American". Indeed there were a handful of black spokesmen who did not consider Obama to be African-American. The black voters of Illinois, voted 92% for Obama.[34][35]

Obama ran the most successful Senate campaign in 2004, and was so far ahead in polls that he soon began to campaign outside of Illinois in support of other Democratic candidates. He gave large sums of campaign funds to other candidates and the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee and sent many of his volunteers to work on other races, including that of eventual three-term Congresswoman Melissa Bean who defeated then-Congressman Phil Crane in that year's election. Obama and Keyes differed on many issues including school vouchers and tax cuts, both of which Keyes supported and Obama opposed.[36]

Results

2004 Illinois U.S. Senate Election Party Candidate Votes % Democratic Barack Obama 3,597,456 70.0% +22.6% Republican Alan Keyes 1,390,690 27.0% -23.3% Independent Al Franzen 81,164 1.6% Libertarian Jerry Kohn 69,253 1.3% Write-ins 2,957 0.1% Majority 2,206,766 43.0% +40.1% Turnout 5,350,493 71.3% Democratic gain from Republican Swing

The Obama-Keyes race was one of the first to be called on Election Day, November 2, 2004.

At the start of Keyes' candidacy in August, Keyes had 24% support in the polls. He received 27% of the vote in the November general election to Obama's 70%.[37]

Following the election, Keyes refused to call Obama to congratulate him. Media reports claimed that Keyes also failed to concede the race to Obama.[38] Two days after the election, a radio interviewer asked Keyes whether he had conceded the race. Keyes replied, "Of course I've conceded the race. I mean, I gave my speech to that effect."[39]

On the radio program, Keyes explained that his refusal to congratulate Obama was "not anything personal," but was meant to make a statement against "extend[ing] false congratulations to the triumph of what we have declared to be across the line." He said that Obama's position on moral issues regarding life and the family had crossed that line. "I'm supposed to make a call that represents the congratulations toward the triumph of that which I believe ultimately stands for... a culture evil enough to destroy the very soul and heart of my country? I can't do this. And I will not make a false gesture," Keyes said.[39]

Obama would go on to be elected President of the United States in 2008.

References

^ Jacobson, Gary C. (March 30, 2006). "The First Congressional Elections After BCRA" (PDF). The Election After Reform: Money, Politics and the Bipartisan Campaign RDUNIAt. Rowman and Littlefield. p.195. ISBN978-0742538702. Retrieved October 27, 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ Quigley, Kelly (December 1, 2003). "O'Shea backs out of Senate race". Crain's Chicago Business. Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved August 4, 2017. ^ "Will Mr. Obama go to Washington? Illinois state legislator seeks to become only black U.S. senator.(Washington Report)". Black Enterprise. February 1, 2004. ^ Neal, Steve (July 3, 2002). "Obama could add drama to Senate race" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p.41. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ . (September 1, 2002). "No shortage of candidates for U.S. Senate run in '04" (paid archive). The State Journal-Register. p.15. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Pearson, Rick; Chase, John (January 22, 2003). "Legislator in race to unseat Fitzgerald; Democrat seeks 2004 nomination for U.S. Senate" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p.4 (Metro). Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Krol, Eric (January 18, 2003). "Ex-senator doesn't want rematch with Fitzgerald" (paid archive). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights). p.11. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Zorn, Eric (January 18, 2003). "Moseley-Braun gives Democrats reason for hope" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p.15 (Metro). Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Krol, Eric (December 9, 2002). "Why senator ending up more isolated; Fitzgerald's style has both Democrats and Republicans planning to challenge him" (paid archive). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights). p.1. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Neal, Steve (April 16, 2003). "Writing was on the wall after latest Fitzgerald polls" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p.55. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Wilgoren, Jodi (April 16, 2003). "Illinois Senator announces he won't seek re-election". The New York Times. p.A.10. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Pearson, Rick; Chase, John (May 10, 2003). "GOP Senate floodgates open as Edgar says no" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p.1. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Davey, Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely watched Illinois Senate race attracts 7 candidates in millionaire range". The New York Times. p.1.19. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
. (March 7, 2004). "Candidate wealth; net worth of the richest Illinois candidates for the U.S. Senate". The New York Times. p.1.19. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Justice, Glen (October 17, 2003). "In races with one deep pocket, the law tries to tailor a second". The New York Times. p.A.1. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Rosenbaum, David E. (December 10, 2003). "Paul Simon, former Senator from Illinois, is dead at 75". The New York Times. p.A29. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Long, Ray (December 10, 2003). "A legacy of honesty and dignity; Straight-talking manner appealed even to conservatives" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p.1. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Neal, Steve (December 31, 2003). "Obama's endorsements stacking up; Before he died, former Sen. Paul Simon had decided to endorse Obama" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p.33. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Schoenburg, Bernard (February 26, 2004). "Obama gets endorsement from Simon's daughter" (paid archive). The State Journal-Register. p.12. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Wallace-Wells, Ben (April 1, 2007). "Obama's narrator". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
Mendell (2007), pp. 227232 ^ Mendell, David (March 17, 2004). "Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state". Chicago Tribune. p.1. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
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Wills, Christopher (Associated Press) (March 18, 2004). "Republican Ryan trying to battle new Democratic star despite questions" (paid archive). Times-Courier. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Mendell, David (March 18, 2004). "Ryan, Obama enter new ring; Democrat carries high hopes of blacks with him to center stage" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. p.1. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Sweet, Lynn (March 18, 2004). "Senate Democrats race to raise cash for Obama. The Obama campaign energized voters. The Ryan election did not get people to the polls" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p.43. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Krol, Eric (March 18, 2004). "Campaign starts early for Ryan, Obama; Senate hopefuls already trying to define each other" (paid archive). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights). p.1. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
. (March 18, 2004). "Illinois primary victor is Party's Senate hope; Democratic leaders see the state as a key battleground in their effort to regain control" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. p.A25. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Tilove, Jonathan (Newhouse News Service) (March 18, 2004). "Barack Obama: Black Senate candidate a rising star" (paid archive). Mobile Register. p.A06. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Davey, Monica (March 18, 2004). "As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born". The New York Times. p.A20. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Howlett, Debbie (March 19, 2004). "Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate". USA Today. p.A04. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
Harwood, John (March 31, 2004). "Presidential politics overshadows rise of state-level stars". The Wall Street Journal (paid archive). p.A4.
Romano, Lois (April 10, 2004). "Kerry sprinkles jobs message with attacks on Iraq policy" (paid archive). The Washington Post. p.A4. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Fornek, Scott (April 12, 2004). "Obama's poll puts him far ahead of Ryan" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. p.7. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Kuhnhenn, James (May 24, 2004). "With seven retirements, control of Senate is at stake in election" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer. p.A02. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Scheiber, Noam (May 31, 2004). "Race against history. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign". The New Republic. pp.2122, 2426 (cover story). Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Finnegan, William (May 31, 2004). "The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go?". The New Yorker. pp.3238. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Dionne Jr.; E. J. (June 25, 2004). "In Illinois, a star prepares". The Washington Post. p.A29. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
Mendell (2007), pp. 235259. ^ Turow, Scott (March 30, 2004). "The new face of the Democratic Party -- and America". Salon.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
Cader, Michael (July 30, 2004). "Publishers eyeing Obama". The New York Sun. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
Leroux, Charles (August 6, 2004). "The buzz around Obama's book". Chicago Tribune. p.1 (Tempo). Retrieved December 28, 2009.
Sweet, Lynn (March 17, 2005). "Be-bop, Barack and bucks from book". Chicago Sun-Times. p.39. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times. p.A1. Retrieved December 28, 2009. ^ Fornek, Scott; Herrmann, Andrew. Senate rivals urge Ryan to unseal divorce records, Chicago Sun-Times (March 4, 2004). ^ Davey, Monica. From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat (March 17, 2004). ^ Ford, Liam; Avila, Oscar. "Oberweis ads rile immigrant groups". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. ^ Andres Salles (November 16, 2007). "Oberweis: hard line on immigration". The Beacon News. ^ cbs2chicago.com - Oberweis Fined For Funding Campaign With Dairy Ad Archived December 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ^ a b Mendell, David (May 23, 2004). "Ryan aide to give Obama more space". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2008. ^ a b Fornek, Scott. "Obama: Back off divorce files", Chicago Sun-Times (April 3, 2004). ^ Ford, Liam. Some Ryan divorce files should be unsealed, Chicago Tribune (March 30, 2004). ^ a b Kinzer, Stephen; Jo Napolitano (June 23, 2004). "Illinois Senate Campaign Thrown Into Prurient Turmoil". New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2008. ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (June 22, 2004). "Illinois Republican vows to stay in Senate race despite embarrassing allegations". SignOnSanDiego.com. Associated Press. Retrieved August 12, 2007. ^ Martinez, Michael; Pearson, Rick. Court sets release of Ryan's divorce file, Chicago Tribune (June 18, 2004). ^ Pearson, Rick; Ford, Liam. GOP leaders say they felt misled on Ryan file, Chicago Tribune (June 23, 2004). ^ Ford, Liam; Bush, Rudolph. Ryan Quits Race, Chicago Tribune June 26, 2004. ^ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/ditka-spikes-illinois-senate-run/ ^ http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/08/08/senate.illinois.keyes/index.html ^ "Commentary: The GOP's rent-a-senator". Chicago Tribune. August 6, 2004. Retrieved January 21, 2013. ^ "Plan B for Illinois". The New York Times. August 10, 2004. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2009. ^ Robinson, Mike (August 9, 2004). "Keyes assails Obama's abortion views". The Associated Press. MSNBC.com. Retrieved December 27, 2009. ^ Omiunota N. Ukpokodu; Peter Otiato Ojiambo (2017). Erasing Invisibility, Inequity and Social Injustice of Africans in the Diaspora and the Continent. p.113. ^ Andra Gillespie (2010). Whose Black Politics?: Cases in Post-Racial Black Leadership. Routledge. pp.14344. ^ Alan Keyes Archives, 2004 Illinois Debates Archived February 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate/Illinois". CNN. Retrieved August 12, 2007. ^ "Keyes concedes race, says Obama stands for 'evil' culture - Lewiston Sun Journal". Lewiston Sun Journal. 2004-11-06. Retrieved 2018-02-09. ^ a b Thomas, Scott (November 4, 2004). "Alan Keyes on the Scott Thomas Show, WYLL". Allan Keyes Archives. Retrieved August 12, 2007.

Further reading

  • Henderson, Harold; et al. (March 12, 2004). "15 Candidates! We Can HelpThe Reader's Guide to the Big Showdown". Chicago Reader. p.1. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
  • Mendell, David (August 14, 2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. pp.147302. ISBN0-06-085820-6. Retrieved January 27, 2009.
  • v
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Barack Obama
  • 44th President of the United States (20092017)
  • U.S. Senator from Illinois (20052008)
  • Illinois Senator from the 13th district (19972004)
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Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2004_United_States_Senate_election_in_Illinois&oldid=899809062"
illinois senator barack obama
Barack Obama
Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Barack Obama (disambiguation)."Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack ObamaObama standing with his arms folded and smiling44th President of the United StatesIn office
January 20, 2009 January 20, 2017Vice PresidentJoe BidenPreceded byGeorge W. BushSucceeded byDonald TrumpUnited States Senator
from IllinoisIn office
January 3, 2005 November 16, 2008Preceded byPeter FitzgeraldSucceeded byRoland BurrisMember of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th districtIn office
January 8, 1997 November 4, 2004Preceded byAlice PalmerSucceeded byKwame RaoulPersonal detailsBornBarack Hussein Obama II
August 4, 1961
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.Political partyDemocraticSpouse(s)Michelle Robinson (m.1992)Children
  • Malia
  • Sasha
ParentsBarack Obama Sr.
Ann DunhamRelativesObama familyResidenceKalorama (Washington, D.C.)EducationOccidental College
Columbia University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)AwardsNobel Peace Prize (2009)
Profile in Courage Award (2017)SignatureWebsiteOfficial website
Obama Foundation
White House Archives

Barack Hussein Obama II (/b??r??k hu??se?n o??b??m?/ (About this soundlisten);[1] born August 4, 1961) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008.

Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U.S. Senate. He received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act"), the DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United StatesRussia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was killed by NATO-assisted forces. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court: Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan were confirmed as justices, while Merrick Garland faced unprecedented partisan obstruction and was ultimately not confirmed. During his term in office, America's soft power and reputation abroad significantly improved.[2]

Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and currently resides in Washington, D.C.[3][4] A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years.[5]

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Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Obama was born on August 4, 1961,[6] at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii.[7][8][9] He is the only president who was born outside of the contiguous 48 states.[10] He was born to a white mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham (19421995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,[11] with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[12] His father, Barack Obama Sr. (19361982), was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.[13][14] The couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.[15][16]

In late August 1961 (a few weeks after he was born), Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He then left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.[17] Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance.[18] He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971,[19] before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old.[20] Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk barely registered in my mind."[14] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[21]

In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro at the University of Hawaii; he was an Indonesian EastWest Center graduate student in geography. The couple married on Molokai on March 15, 1965.[22] After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet sub district of south Jakarta. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng sub district of central Jakarta.[23]

Education

Obama started out in St. Francis Pre-Education from age three to five. From age six to ten, he then attended local Indonesian-language schools: Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School) for two years and Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01 (State Elementary School Menteng 01/Besuki school) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.[24][25] As a result of those four years in Jakarta, he was able to speak Indonesian fluently as a child.[26][27][28] During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works".[29]

In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended Punahou Schoola private college preparatory schoolwith the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.[30] In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry".[31] Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, Maya Soetoro, in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.[32] Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.[33] His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.[34]

Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[35] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".[36] Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.[37][38]

After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to Los Angeles to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.[39] In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks.[39] Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations[40] and in English literature[41] and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.[42] He graduated with a BA degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the Business International Corporation, where he was a financial researcher and writer,[43][44] then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York campus for three months in 1985.[45][46][47]

Family and personal life

Main article: Family of Barack Obama Obama posing in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009

In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[48] Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng) and seven other half-siblings from his Kenyan father's familysix of them living.[49] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham,[50] until her death on November 2, 2008,[51] two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011.[52] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W. Bush and Dick Cheney, among others.[53]

Obama with Jonathan Toews and the Stanley Cup champion Chicago Blackhawks, 2010

Obama is a supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator.[54] In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket.[55] He is also primarily a Chicago Bears football fan in the NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after he took office as president.[56] In 2011, Obama invited the 1985 Chicago Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[57] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team,[58] and he is left-handed.[59]

Obama about to take a shot while three other players look at him. One of those players attempts to block Obama. Obama taking a left-handed jump shot during a pickup game on the White House basketball court, 2009

Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s.[60] He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.[60][61] The relationship was only made public in May 2017, several months after Obama's presidency had ended.[61]

In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[62] Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.[63] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[64] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[65] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[66] The Obama daughters attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School.[67] The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy.[68] In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny, a female.[69]

Obama and his wife Michelle at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library, 2014

In 2005, the family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6million house (equivalent to $2.1million in 2018) in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[70] The purchase of an adjacent lotand sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezkoattracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[71]

In December 2007, Money Magazine estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3million (equivalent to $1.6million in 2018) .[72] Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5millionup from about $4.2million in 2007 and $1.6million in 2005mostly from sales of his books.[73][74] On his 2010 income of $1.7million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.[75][76] Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10million.[77]

In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said that Barack had quit smoking.[78][79]

On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in Glamour, in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.[80][81][82]

Religious views

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.[83] He wrote in The Audacity of Hope that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[84]

The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., January 2013

In January 2008, Obama told Christianity Today: "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."[85] On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."[86][87]

Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Rev. Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992.[88] During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after some of Wright's statements were criticized.[89] Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.[90][91][92]

Law career

Community organizer and Harvard Law School

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama was back in Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[46][93] He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[94] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[95] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[96][97]

External video Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard, April 24, 1990, 11:34, Boston TV Digital Archive[98] Student Barack Obama introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25.

Obama entered Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts.[99] He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[100] president of the journal in his second year,[94][101] and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.[102] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[103] After graduating with a JD degree magna cum laude[104] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[100] Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[94][101] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[105] which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[105]

Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney

In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book.[105][106] He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[107]

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[108]

He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank, 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).[109] This class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act.[110] The case was settled out of court.[111] Final judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.[112] His law license became inactive in 2007.[113][114]

From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicagowhich in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Projectand of the Joyce Foundation.[46] He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[46]

Legislative career

Illinois State Senator (19972004)

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis in 1998

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde ParkKenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[115] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.[116] He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[117] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[118]

He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.[119] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[120]

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[121] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[117][122] During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[123] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[124]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

Main article: 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois County results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois. Obama won the counties in blue.

In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[125]

Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.[126] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[127] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[128] and spoke out against the war.[129] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[130]

Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.[131] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslidewhich overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.[132] In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention,[133] seen by 9.1million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.[134]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[135] Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.[136] In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.[137]

U.S. Senator from Illinois (200508)

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama The official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,[138] becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[139] CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[140]

Legislation
See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[141] He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: LugarObama, which expanded the NunnLugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons;[142] and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[143] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obamaalong with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCainintroduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[144]

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[145] Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[146]

Gray-haired man and Obama stand, wearing casual polo shirts. Obama wears sunglasses and holds something slung over his right shoulder. Obama and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)[147]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[148] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[149] Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,[150] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007.[151]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.[152] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[153] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which was never enacted but later incorporated in the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010;[154] and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[155] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[156]

Committees
Obama speaking with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[157] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[158] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[159] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.[160]

Presidential campaigns

2008

Main articles: United States presidential election, 2008; Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008; and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008 Photograph Obama standing on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[161][162] The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[161][163] Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and reforming the health care system,[164] in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.[165]

Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[166] On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.[167]

Photograph Outgoing President George W. Bush meets with President-elect Obama in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008

On August 23, Obama announced his selection of Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[168] Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.[168] At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support.[169] Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38million people worldwide.[170][171][172]

During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[173] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[174]

2008 electoral vote results

John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October 2008.[175] On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 electoral votes to 173 received by McCain.[176] Obama won 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%.[177] He became the first African American to be elected president.[178] Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.[179]

2012

Main articles: United States presidential election, 2012 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012 Obama greets former Governor Mitt Romney in the Oval Office on November 29, 2012, in their first meeting since Obama's re-election victory over Romney

On April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.[180][181][182] As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries,[183] and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.[184]

2012 electoral vote results

At the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama and Joe Biden were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin.[185]

On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.[186][187][188] With 51.1% of the popular vote,[189] Obama became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice.[190][191] Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."[192][193]

Presidency (20092017)

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama. See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet and List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama

First 100 days

Main article: First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency Photograph Barack Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.[194] He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[195] but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds[196][197][198] and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.[199] Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.[200] He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.[201]

Domestic policy

See also: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration

The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.[202] Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4million uninsured children.[203] In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.[204]

Obama delivering a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi on February 24, 2009

Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated Sonia Sotomayor on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,[205] becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic descent.[206] Obama nominated Elena Kagan on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.[207]

On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[208][209]

Obama meets with the Cabinet of the United States, November 23, 2009

In a major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.[210]

President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised that the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and would be 80% reliant on "clean" electricity.[211][212]

LGBT rights

On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.[213]

On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality.[214]

On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign[215][216] to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.[217] In 2016, the Pentagon ended the policy that also barred transgender people from serving openly in the military.[218]

As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said that he favored legalizing same-sex marriage.[219] By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said that he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners, but he opposed same-sex marriages.[220] In 2008, he reaffirmed this position by stating "I believe marriage is between a man and a woman. I am not in favor of gay marriage."[221] On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.[222][223]

The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.

During his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013,[193] Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.[224][225]

In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v. Perry (regarding same-sex marriage)[226] and United States v. Windsor (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act).[227] Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."[228]

On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign.[229]

White House advisory and oversight groups

On March 11, 2009, Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls, which formed part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by Executive Order 13506 with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.[230] The Council was chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett.[231] Obama also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through a government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.[231][232][233] The co-chairs of the Task Force were Vice President Joe Biden and Jarrett.[232] The Task Force was a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that, the 1994 Violence Against Women Act that was first drafted by Biden.[234]

Economic policy

Main article: Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration ">File:20090124 WeeklyAddress.ogvPlay media Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession.[235] The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.[236]

Deficit and debt increases, 200116

In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the PublicPrivate Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to twotrillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.[237]

Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry[238] in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat[239] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.[240] In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.[241] He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", that temporarily boosted the economy.[242][243][244]

The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5trillion, but only $3trillion was spent by the end of November 2009.[245] Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predicted the 2010 budget deficit would be $1.5trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4trillion or 9.9% of GDP.[246][247] For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit would shrink to $1.34trillion, and the 10-year deficit would increase to $8.53trillion or 90% of GDP.[248] The most recent increase in the U.S. debt ceiling to $17.2trillion took effect in February 2014.[249] On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.[250] By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a U.S. government default on its obligations.[251]

US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. President[252][253]

As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.[254] Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.[255] By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,[256] decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.[257] During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.[258] GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.[259] Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year.[259] In July 2010, the Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain".[260] Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.[261]

The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth.[262][263] The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 12.1million,[263][264][265][266] while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."[262] Although an April 2010, survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed that the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.[267] The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of World War II.[268] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus plan of the US and the austerity measures in the European Union.[269]

Within a month of the 2010 midterm elections, Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.[270] The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858billion Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010.[271]

In December 2013, Obama declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.[272]

Obama urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[273]

Environmental policy

See also: Climate change policy of the United States Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana

On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.[274][275]

On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review.[276] As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.[277]

In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".[278][279] Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013.[280] On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would authorize the pipeline.[281] It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.[282]

Obama emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act to create 25 new national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of 553,000,000 acres (224,000,000ha) of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.[283]

Health care reform

Main article: Health care reform in the United States Photograph Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010

Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.[284] He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.[285][286]

Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)[287]

On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.[284] After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.[288] In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.[289]

On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.[290][291] On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own billwithout a public optionon a party-line vote of 6039.[292] On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.[293] Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.[294]

The ACA includes health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid eligibility for people making up to 133%of the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014,[295] subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400%of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,[296][297] providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.[296][298]

Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 19632015 (Source: JAMA)[299]

The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;[300] there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.[301] In March 2010, the CBO estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143billion over the first decade.[302]

The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 54 vote in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.[303] In Burwell v. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 63 in King v. Burwell that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.[304]

Energy policy

Main article: Energy policy of the Obama administration

Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.[305] Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy, such as coal mining and oil fracking, has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.[306][307]

Gun control

Main article: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration Gun policy Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012

On January 16, 2013, one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.[308] He urged Congress to reintroduce an expired ban on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006.[309] On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers.[310] In a 2016 editorial in the New York Times, Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.[311]

2010 midterm elections

Main articles: United States House of Representatives elections, 2010 and United States Senate elections, 2010

Obama called the November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,[312] "humbling" and a "shellacking".[313] He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.[314]

Cybersecurity and Internet policy

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[315][316] On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed Executive Order 13636, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."[317]

Foreign policy

Main article: Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration June 4, 2009 ? after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in an roundtable interview in 2009 with among others Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and Nahum Barnea.

In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.[318] Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya.[319]

On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.[320][321] In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.[322] On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.[323]

International trips made by President Barack Obama during his terms in office Obama with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2011

On June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."[324] While in Moscow on July 7, he responded to Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."[325]

On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[326]

In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.[327][328] During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about one-third.[329] Obama and Medvedev signed the New START treaty in April 2010, and the U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010.[330]

Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White House, October 2016

In December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.[331] In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminated against gays,[332] but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[333]

In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States.[334] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015.

In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.[335][336] In 2016, the Obama administration proposed a series of arms deals with Saudi Arabia worth $115 billion.[337] Obama halted the sale of guided munition technology to Saudi Arabia after Saudi warplanes targeted a funeral in Yemen's capital Sanaa, killing more than 140 people.[338]

Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.[339]

War in Iraq

Main articles: Iraq War and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014present)

On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."[340] The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.[341][342] On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over.[343] On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays".[344]

US President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron trade bottles of beer to settle a bet they made on the U.S. vs. England World Cup Soccer game (which ended in a tie), during a bilateral meeting at the G20 Summit in Toronto, Canada, Saturday, June 26, 2010 Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit

In June 2014, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing.[345][346]

In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama ordered a campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS.[347]

By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict[348] and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.[349]

In early 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,[350] and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.[351]

War in Afghanistan

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001present)

Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.[352] He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".[353] He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.[354] On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;[355] this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.[356] In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.[357]

In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.[358]

Israel

President Barack Obama, at left, shakes hands with Israeli President Shimon Peres, at right, in the Oval Office on Tuesday, May 5, 2009. Standing at right looking on is U.S. Vice President Joe Biden. Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the Oval Office, May 2009

In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so.[359] Obama supports the two-state solution to the ArabIsraeli conflict based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.[360]

In June 2011, Obama said that the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable".[361] During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.[362] The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel.[363]

In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."[364] In 2014, Obama likened the Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. He said that both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."[365] Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 IsraelGaza conflict.[366] In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad".[367]

On December 23, 2016, under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law, effectively allowing it to pass.[368] Netanyahu strongly criticized the Obama Administration's actions,[369][370] and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.[371] On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 34280 to condemn the UN Resolution.[372][373]

Libya

Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015

In February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolution[374] passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.[375] In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafiwho had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi[376]announced an immediate cessation of military activities,[377] yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,[378] including the use of Tomahawk missiles, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets.[379][380][381] Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all of its 28 members, NATO took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector.[382] Some Representatives[383] questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.[384][385]

Syrian Civil War

See also: Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War United States

On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for President Assad to step aside."[386][387] This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.[388] In 2012, Obama authorized multiple programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.[389] The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.[390][391]

In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged[392] and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.[393][394] In 2014, Obama authorized an air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL, but repeatedly promised that the U.S. would not deploy ground troops in Syria.[395][396]

Death of Osama bin Laden

Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden ">File:President Obama on Death of Osama bin Laden.ogvPlay media President Obama's address (9:28)
Also available: Audio only; Full textWikisource has information on "Remarks by the President on Osama bin Laden"President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear, a mission against Osama bin Laden, in one of the conference rooms of the Situation Room of the White House, on May 1, 2011. They are watching live feed from drones operating over the bin Laden complex. Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area 35 miles (56km) from Islamabad.[397] CIA head Leon Panetta reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011.[397] Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs.[397] The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.[398][399] DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,[400] which was buried at sea several hours later.[401] Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's Ground Zero and Times Square.[398][402] Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.[403]

Iran nuclear talks

Main article: Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013

In November 2013, the Obama administration opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[404][405][406] In addition, the transfer of $1.7 billion in cash to Iran shortly after the deal was announced was criticized by the republican party. The Obama administration said that the payment in cash was because of the "effectiveness of U.S. and international sanctions".[407] In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah from the Drug Enforcement Administration's Project Cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency.[408][409]

Relations with Cuba

Main article: United StatesCuban Thaw President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raul Castro in Panama, April 2015

Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.[410] The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill.[411] On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raul Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the Nelson Mandela memorial service in Johannesburg.[412]

In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of detente.[413] Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, The New Republic deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."[414] On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana.[415] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.[416]

Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in 1928.[417]

Africa

Obama spoke in front of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progress made in education, infrastructure, and economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities (LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.[418][419] During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.[420]

Hiroshima speech

On May 27, 2016, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan, 71 years after the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima that ended World War II. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.[421]

Russia

See also: RussiaUnited States relations Obama's tenure (200917) Obama meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2015.

After Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election,[422] Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.[423] George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said that Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.[424]

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama See also: International reaction to the United States presidential election, 2008 and International reactions to the United States presidential election, 2012

Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[425] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[426] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[427]

Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[428] During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.[429] In his speeches as president, Obama did not make more overt references to race relations than his predecessors,[430][431] but according to one study, he implemented stronger policy action on behalf of African-Americans than any president since the Nixon era.[432]

Presidential approval ratings

According to the Gallup Organization, Obama began his presidency with a 68% approval rating[433] before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,[434] a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office.[435] He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.[436][437] His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.[438] Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.[439]

Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency.[440][441] In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.[442] In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.[443][444]

Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom, President Barack Obama, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, Jose Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, President Francois Hollande of France and others react emotionally while watching the overtime shootout of the Chelsea vs. Bayern Munich Champions League final, in the Laurel Cabin conference room during the G8 Summit at Camp David, Maryland, May 19, 2012. Cameron raises his arms triumphantly as the Chelsea team wins their first Champions League title in the overtime shootout. G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[445] His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can", which was viewed 10million times on YouTube in its first month[446] and received a Daytime Emmy Award.[447] In December 2008 and in 2012, Time magazine named Obama as its Person of the Year.[448] The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which Time described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".[449] On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in 1960, Nelson Mandela in 1996, Queen Elizabeth II in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.[450][451]

On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".[452] Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."[453] The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.[454][455][456][457] Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by The New York Times.[458] Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.[459] Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.[460]

Post-presidency (2017present)

Obama, with Joe Biden and Donald Trump at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017

Barack Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews.[461] The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C.[462]

A 2018 survey of historians by the American Political Science Association ranked Obama the 8th-greatest American President.[4] Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the Brookings Institution that ranked Obama the 18th-greatest American President.[463]

On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."[464] In his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago on April 24. The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.[465] On May 4, three days ahead of the French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed Emmanuel Macron: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."[466] Macron went on to win the election.

While in Berlin on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.[467] Obama traveled to Kensington Palace in England and met with Prince Harry on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior.[468]

Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obama's newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions. On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others".[469][470]

After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."[471]

Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017

After Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."[472] On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions".[473]

After Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program on September 5, Obama released a Facebook post rebuking the decision.[474] Two days later, he partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.[475]

Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago on October 31. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.[476] Obama has also been working on a Presidential memoir, in a reported $65 million deal with Penguin Random House.[477]

Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017, and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing.[478][479] He then went to India, where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.[480][481] He also met with the Dalai Lama while in New Delhi.[482] He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President Francois Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.[483]

Obama endorsed Oregon Governor Kate Brown for re-election on October 1, 2018.[484] On October 22, Obama traveled to Las Vegas to speak at a campaign rally to discuss economic growth, campaigning for Nevada Democratic candidates.[485]

A package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to Obama's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. The package was intercepted by the Secret Service during routine mail screenings. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of Donald Trump and to CNN. Debbie Wasserman Schultz was addressed as the sender of the package. On October 26, 2018, Cesar Sayoc was arrested and faces five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs.[486][487]

Legacy

Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to predecessors, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term

Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020. Many attempts by Senate Republicans to repeal the PPACA, including a "skinny repeal", have thus far failed.[488] Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.[489][490][491][492]

Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession.[488] According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama administration created 11.3million jobs from the month after his first inauguration to the end of his term.[493] In 2010, Obama signed into effect the DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 200708, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[494]

In 2009, Obama signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity.

As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights.[495] In 2010, he signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from LGB people; the law went into effect the following year.[496] In 2016, his administration brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the U.S. armed forces.[497][218] A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed that the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.[498]

Obama substantially escalated the use of drone strikes against suspected militants and terrorists associated with al-Qaeda and the Taliban.[499][500] In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.[501][502] Obama left about 8,400 US troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 in Iraq, 503 in Syria, 133 in Pakistan, 106 in Somalia, 7 in Yemen, and 2 in Libya at the end of his presidency.[503][504]

According to Pew Research Center and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2015, that inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by 5% under Obama. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democratic President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.[505]

Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.[506][507] A 2017 C-SPAN Presidential Historians Survey ranked Obama as the 12th-best US president.[508][509]

Presidential library

Main article: Barack Obama Presidential Center

The Barack Obama Presidential Center is Obama's planned presidential library. It will be hosted by the University of Chicago and located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago.[510]

Bibliography

  • Dreams from My Father, 1995
  • The Audacity of Hope, 2006
  • Of Thee I Sing, 2010

Audiobooks

  • 2006: The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (read by the author), Random House Audio, .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN978-0739366417

See also

Politics

  • Social policy of Barack Obama
  • DREAM Act
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
  • List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama
  • Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012
  • Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009
  • National Broadband Plan (United States)
  • Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • SPEECH Act
  • Stay with It
  • White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy

Other

  • Speeches of Barack Obama
  • Roberts Court

Lists

  • Assassination threats against Barack Obama
  • List of people pardoned by Barack Obama
  • Federal political scandals, 200917
  • List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2008
  • List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2012
  • List of African-American United States Senators
  • List of things named after Barack Obama

Notes and references

Notes

^ "Barack Hussein Obama Takes The Oath Of Office" on YouTube. January 20, 2009. ^ Wan, William; Scott Clement (November 18, 2016). "Most of the world doesn't actually see America the way Trump said it did". The Washington Post. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (February 15, 2018). "Obama's First Retrospective Job Approval Rating Is 63%". Gallup.com. Retrieved April 5, 2018. ^ a b Rottinghaus, Brandon; Justin S. Vaughn (February 19, 2018). "How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best and Worst Presidents?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018. ^ INSIDER, Jacob Shamsian. "Barack and Michelle Obama top Gallup's list of most-admired men and women in the world, trouncing the Trumps". Business Insider. Retrieved January 2, 2019. ^ "President Barack Obama". The White House. 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2008. ^ "Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24pm, Honolulu" (PDF). Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017. ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p.A22. Retrieved October 28, 2008. ^ Nakaso, Dan (December 22, 2008). "Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years". The Honolulu Advertiser. p.B1. Retrieved January 22, 2011. ^ Barreto, Amilcar Antonio; Richard L. O'Bryant (November 12, 2013). "Introduction". American Identity in the Age of Obama. Taylor & Francis. pp.1819. ISBN978-1-317-93715-9. Retrieved May 8, 2017. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12. ^ Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (November December 2008). "The quest for Obama's Irish roots". Ancestry. 26 (6): 4647, 49. ISSN1075-475X. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  • Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  • Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June 4, 2009). "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
  • Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. Press Association of Ireland. p.3. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  • Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own". The Washington Post. p.A14. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
  • David Williamson (July 5, 2008). "Wales link in US presidential candidate's past". walesonline.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p.1 (Tempo). Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. ^ a b Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 910.
  • Scott (2011), pp. 8086.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115118.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 154160.
^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Retrieved April 9, 2007. ^ Scott (2011), p. 86.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 125127.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 160163.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 8793.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115118, 125127, 133161.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 170183, 188189.
^ Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance" ^ Scott (2011), pp. 142144.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 161177, 227230.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 190194, 201209, 227230.
^ Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found". The EastAfrican. Nairobi. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  • Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The ghost of a father". The Washington Post. p.A12. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 251255.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 411417.
^ Serrano, Richard A. (March 11, 2007). "Obama's peers didn't see his angst". Los Angeles Times. p.A20. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 97103.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 195201, 225230.
^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 195201, 209223, 230244. ^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234244. ^ "Barack Obama: Calvert Homeschooler? Calvert Education Blog". calverteducation.com. January 25, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2015. ^ "Wawancara Eksklusif RCTI dengan Barack Obama (Part 2)". YouTube. March 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2018. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2009). "Obama's Indonesian Redux". Language Log. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
  • "Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan". Kompas (in Indonesian). November 26, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008.
^ Zimmer, Benjamin (January 23, 2009). "Obama's Indonesian pleasantries: the video". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved October 7, 2012. ^ Meacham, Jon (August 22, 2008). "What Barack Obama Learned from His Father". Newsweek. Archived from the original on January 9, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017. ^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  • Scott, Janny (March 14, 2008). "A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path". The New York Times. p.A1. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
  • Scott (2012), pp. 131134.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 264269.
^ Wolffe, Richard (March 22, 2008). "When Barry Became Barack". Newsweek. Retrieved March 21, 2016. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 139157.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279281.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 157194.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279281, 324326.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317346. ^ Reyes, B.J. (February 8, 2007). "Punahou left lasting impression on Obama". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved February 10, 2007. As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks. ^ Elliott, Philip (November 21, 2007). "Obama gets blunt with N.H. students". Boston Globe. Associated Press. p.8A. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012. ^ Karl, Jonathan (May 25, 2012). "Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang"". ABC News. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  • Obama, Barack (2004) [1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. pp.9394. ISBN9780307394125. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  • Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. pages with "choom gang". ISBN9781439167533. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  • for analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see:
  • Seelye, Katharine Q. (October 24, 2006). "Obama offers more variations from the norm". The New York Times. p.A21. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
  • Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's candor remains to be seen". The Washington Post. p.A1. Retrieved January 14, 2007.
^ "FRONTLINE The Choice 2012". PBS. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012. ^ a b Gordon, Larry (January 29, 2007). "Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama". Los Angeles Times. p.B1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Possley, Maurice (March 30, 2007). "Activism blossomed in college". Chicago Tribune. p.20. Archived from the original on October 9, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Kovaleski, Serge F. (February 9, 2008). "Old friends say drugs played bit part in Obama's young life". The New York Times. p.A1. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Rohter, Larry (April 10, 2008). "Obama says real-life experience trumps rivals' foreign policy credits". The New York Times. p.A18. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Goldman, Adam; Robert Tanner (May 15, 2008). "Old friends recall Obama's years in LA, NYC". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Helman, Scott (August 25, 2008). "Small college awakened future senator to service (subscription archive)". Boston Globe. p.1A. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Jackson, Brooks (June 5, 2009). "More 'birther' nonsense: Obama's 1981 Pakistan trip". FactCheck.org. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  • Remnick, David (2010). The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp.98112. ISBN978-1400043606.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 92112.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 5562.
^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83". Columbia College Today. ISSN0572-7820. Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2006. ^ "Remarks by the President in Town Hall". White House. June 26, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2016. ^ "The Approval Matrix". New York. August 27, 2012. ^ Horsley, Scott (July 9, 2008). "Obama's Early Brush With Financial Markets". NPR. Retrieved July 17, 2017. ^ Obama, Barack (1998). "Curriculum vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on May 9, 2001. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
  • Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance; Tied markets to social aid". Boston Globe. p.1A. Archived from the original on November 7, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
^ Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "Obama's account of New York often differs from what others say". The New York Times. p.B1. Retrieved July 31, 2007.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133140.
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 6263.
^ a b c d Chassie, Karen, ed. (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p.3468. ISBN978-0-8379-7011-0. ^ Fink, Jason (November 9, 2008). "Obama stood out, even during brief 1985 NYPIRG job". Newsday. ^ "Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First". The Oprah Winfrey Show. October 18, 2006. Retrieved June 24, 2008. ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved June 24, 2008. See also: "Interactive Family Tree". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008. ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved June 24, 2008. ^ "Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer". CNN. November 3, 2008. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2008. ^ Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry S. Truman, see: Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2, 2007). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2008.Jordan, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2008."Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises". CBS 2 (Chicago). Associated Press. September 8, 2007. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008. ^ Silva, Mark (August 25, 2008). "Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. ^ "Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit". MLB Fanhouse. July 14, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2009. ^ Branigin, William (January 30, 2009). "Steelers Win Obama's Approval". The Washington Post. But other than the Bears, the Steelers are probably the team that's closest to my heart. ^ Mayer, Larry (October 7, 2011). "1985 Bears honored by President Obama". Chicago Bears. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2012. ^ Kantor, Jodi (June 1, 2007). "One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2008. See also: "The Love of the Game" (video). Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel. HBO. April 15, 2008. Retrieved October 12, 2011. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Kirkpatrick, David D.; Shane, Scott (January 22, 2009). "On First Day, Obama Quickly Sets a New Tone". The New York Times. p.1. Retrieved September 7, 2012. ^ a b Hosie, Rachel (May 3, 2017). "BEFORE MICHELLE: THE STORY OF BARACK OBAMA'S PROPOSAL TO SHEILA MIYOSHI JAGER". The Independent. Retrieved May 11, 2017. ^ a b Tobias, Andrew J. (May 3, 2017). "Oberlin College professor received unsuccessful marriage proposal from Barack Obama in 1980s, new biography reveals". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 11, 2017. ^ Obama (2006), pp. 327332. See also: Brown, Sarah (December 7, 2005). "Obama '85 masters balancing act". The Daily Princetonian. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009. ^ Obama (2006), p. 329. ^ Fornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). "Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet'". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ Martin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). "Born on the 4th of July". Politico. Archived from the original on July 10, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339340. See also: "Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama". Gannett News Service. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ "Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School". International Herald Tribune. November 22, 2008. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2015. ^ Cooper, Helene (April 13, 2009). "One Obama Search Ends With a Puppy Named Bo". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010. ^ Feldmann, Linda (August 20, 2013). "New little girl arrives at White House. Meet Sunny Obama. (+video)". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 20, 2013. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (December 24, 2005). "The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ Slevin, Peter (December 17, 2006). "Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  • Robinson, Mike (June 4, 2008). "Rezko found guilty in corruption case". MSNBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
^ Harris, Marlys (December 7, 2007). "Obama's Money". CNNMoney.com. Archived from the original on April 24, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, 2007). "Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ Shear, Michael D.; Hilzenrath, David S. (April 16, 2010). "Obamas report $5.5million in income on 2009 tax return". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2010. ^ Solman, Paul (April 18, 2011). "How Much Did President Obama Make in 2010?". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2012. ^ Solman, Paul (April 27, 2011). "The Obamas Gave $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation in 2010; What Is It?". PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2012. ^ Wolf, Richard (May 16, 2012). "Obama worth as much as $10million". USA Today. Retrieved June 16, 2012. ^ Elsner, Alan (December 7, 2008). Obama says he won't be smoking in White House". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2010. ^ Zengerle, Patricia (February 8, 2011). "Yes, he did: first lady says Obama quit smoking". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2011. ^ Obama, Barack (August 4, 2016). "Glamour Exclusive: President Barack Obama Says, "This Is What a Feminist Looks Like"". Glamour. Retrieved August 5, 2016. ^ Victor, Daniel (August 4, 2016). "Obama Writes Feminist Essay in Glamour". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2016. ^ Kelly, Cara (August 4, 2016). "President Obama in 'Glamour': It's important Sasha and Malia's dad is a feminist". USA Today. Retrieved August 5, 2016. ^ * "American President: Barack Obama". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. 2009. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2009. Religion: Christian
  • "The Truth about Barack's Faith" (PDF). Obama for America. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2011. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  • Miller, Lisa (July 18, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2010. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.
  • Barakat, Matthew (November 17, 2008). "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized; D.C. churches have started extending invitations to Obama and his family". MSNBC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009. The United Church of Christ, the denomination from which Obama resigned when he left Wright's church, issued a written invitation to join a UCC denomination in Washington and resume his connections to the church.
  • "Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President". United Church of Christ. January 20, 2009. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved January 21, 2009. Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States.
  • Sullivan, Amy (June 29, 2009). "The Obama's find a church home away from home". Time. Retrieved February 5, 2010. instead of joining a congregation in Washington, D.C., he will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David.
  • Kornblut, Anne E. (February 4, 2010). "Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say". The Washington Post. p.A6. Retrieved February 5, 2010. Obama prays privately... And when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them, with the daughters attending a form of Sunday school there.
^ Obama (2006), pp. 202208. Portions excerpted in: Obama, Barack (October 16, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
  • Obama, Barack (June 28, 2006). "'Call to Renewal' Keynote Address". Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
^ Pulliam, Sarah; Olsen, Ted (January 23, 2008). "Q&A: Barack Obama". Christianity Today. Retrieved January 4, 2013. ^ Charles Babington; Darlene Superville (September 28, 2010). "Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner". HuffPost. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. ^ "President Obama: 'I am a Christian By Choice...The Precepts of Jesus Spoke to Me'". ABC News. September 29, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2016. ^ Garrett, Major; Obama, Barack (March 14, 2008). "Obama talks to Major Garrett on 'Hannity & Colmes'". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved November 10, 2012. Major Garrett, Fox News correspondent: So the first question, how long have you been a member in good standing of that church? Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL), presidential candidate: You know, I've been a member since 1991 or '92. And but I have known Trinity even before then when I was a community organizer on the South Side, helping steel workers find jobs... Garrett: As a member in good standing, were you a regular attendee of Sunday services? Obama: You know, I won't say that I was a perfect attendee. I was regular in spurts, because there was times when, for example, our child had just been born, our first child. And so we didn't go as regularly then.
  • "Obama strongly denounces former pastor". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 29, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2012. I have been a member of Trinity United Church of Christ since 1992, and have known Reverend Wright for 20 years," Obama said. "The person I saw yesterday was not the person that I met 20 years ago.
  • Miller, Lisa (July 11, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2012. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.
  • Remnick, David (2010). The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p.177. ISBN978-1400043606. In late October 1987, his third year as an organizer, Obama went with Kellman to a conference on the black church and social justice at the Harvard Divinity School.
  • Maraniss (2012), p. 557: It would take time for Obama to join and become fully engaged in Wright's church, a place where he would be baptized and married; that would not happen until later, during his second time around in Chicago, but the process started then, in October 1987... Jerry Kellman: "He wasn't a member of the church during those first three years, but he was drawn to Jeremiah."
  • Peter, Baker (2017). Obama: The Call of History. New York: The New York Times/Callaway. ISBN978-0935112900. OCLC1002264033.
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Knoepfle, Peg, ed. (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp.3540. ISBN978-0-9620873-3-2. He has also been a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, an organizing institute working throughout the Midwest. ^ Obama, Auma (2012). And then life happens: a memoir. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp.189208, 212216. ISBN978-1-250-01005-6. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299437.
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"Secret U.S.-Cuba diplomacy ended in landmark deal on prisoners, future ties". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2014. ^ Roberts, Dan; Luscombe, Richard (December 10, 2013). "Obama shakes hands with Raul Castro for first time at Mandela memorial". The Guardian. Retrieved February 15, 2017. ^ Nadeau, Barbie Latza (December 17, 2014). "The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.Cuba Cold War". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 18, 2014. ^ The New Republic, The Cuban Thaw Is Obama's Finest Foreign Policy Achievement to Date, by Joel Gillin, April 13, 2015. ^ "Obama announces re-establishment of U.S.-Cuba diplomatic ties". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2015. ^ Whitefield, Mimi (July 20, 2015). "United States and Cuba reestablish diplomatic relations". The Miami Herald. Retrieved July 19, 2015. ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis; Damien Cave (March 21, 2016). "Obama Arrives in Cuba, Heralding New Era After Decades of Hostility". The New York Times. p.A1. ^ Lee, Carol E. (July 28, 2015). "Obama Becomes First U.S. President to Address African Union". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2015. ^ "Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa". The White House. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015. ^ Ferris, Sarah (July 25, 2015). "Obama: Proud to be first U.S. president to visit Kenya". The Hill. Retrieved July 30, 2015. ^ "President Obama visits Hiroshima". BBC News. Retrieved June 19, 2016. ^ "US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal?". Financial Times. November 4, 2016. ^ Friedman, Thomas L. (October 5, 2016). "Let's Get Putin's Attention". The New York Times. ^ "Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret". The New York Times. November 6, 2016. ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also: Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. ^ Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday. New York. Retrieved April 7, 2008. ^ Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also: Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. ^ Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). "Obama: Oratory and originality". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
  • Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). "How to Inspire People Like Obama Does". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
  • Zlomislic, Diana (December 11, 2008). "New emotion dubbed 'elevation'". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
  • Greene, Richard (January 25, 2011). "Obama Is America's Third Greatest Presidential Orator in Modern Era". HuffPost. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
^ "YouTube ChangeDotGov's Channel". YouTube. Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010. ^ Dyson, Michael Eric. (2016). The Black Presidency: Barack Obama and the Politics of Race in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 275. ISBN978-0544387669. ^ Gillion, Daniel Q. (2016). "Governing with Words". Cambridge Core. Retrieved June 5, 2019. ^ Butler, Bennett; Mendelberg, Tali; Haines, Pavielle E. (2019). ""I'm Not the President of Black America": Rhetorical versus Policy Representation". Perspectives on Politics: 121. doi:10.1017/S1537592719000963. ISSN1537-5927. ^ "Obama Starts With 68% Job Approval". Gallup.com. January 24, 2009. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011. ^ "Obama hits low point in Gallup Poll 41%". USA Today. April 15, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011. ^ Jon Terbush (December 9, 2010). "Approval By Numbers: How Obama Compares To Past Presidents". Tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved June 19, 2011. ^ Oliphant, James (May 11, 2011). "Bin Laden bounce? New poll shows jump in Obama approval". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2011. ^ Balz, Dan; Cohen, John (June 6, 2011). "Obama loses bin Laden bounce; Romney on the move among GOP contenders". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved June 7, 2011. ^ "Presidential Job Approval Center". Gallup.com. Retrieved June 23, 2015. ^ "Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval". Gallup Polling. January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. ^ "World wants Obama as president: poll". ABC News. Reuters. September 9, 2008. ^ Wike, Richard; Poushter, Jacob; Zainulbhai, Hani (June 29, 2016). "As Obama Years Draw to Close, President and U.S. Seen Favorably in Europe and Asia". Global Attitudes & Trends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 23, 2017. ^ Freed, John C. (February 6, 2009). "Poll shows Obama atop list of most respected". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2012. ^ "Obama Most Popular Leader, Poll Finds". The New York Times. May 29, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2012. ^ "Obama remains a popular symbol of hope". France 24. June 2, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012. ^ Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008. ^ Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". The Times. London. Retrieved December 18, 2008. (subscription required) ^ Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). "Emmys give knuckle bump to will.i.am; more videos on the way". Los Angeles Times blogs. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2012. ^ Scherer, Michael (December 19, 2012). "2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President". Time. Retrieved December 19, 2012. ^ Von Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). "Why History Can't Wait". Time. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2008. ^ Barack Obama (May 25, 2011). "Full transcript Speech to UK Parliament". New Statesman. Retrieved June 14, 2014. ^ "20th century to the present day". Parliament of the United Kingdom. April 21, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2014. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009. ^ "Obama: 'Peace requires responsibility'". CNN. December 10, 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2011. ^ Philp, Catherine (October 10, 2009). "Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight". The Times. London. Retrieved October 10, 2009.(subscription required) ^ Otterman, Sharon (October 9, 2009). "World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2009. ^ "Obama Peace Prize win has Americans asking why?". Reuters. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009. ^ "Obama: Nobel Peace Prize 'a call to action' Politics White House". MSNBC. Retrieved September 13, 2014. ^ Steven Erlanger (October 10, 2009). "Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. ^ "Obama's win unique among presidents". CNN. October 9, 2009. ^ Taylor, Adam. "Obama's Nobel peace prize didn't have the desired effect, former Nobel official reveals". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2016. ^ Korte, Gregory (January 20, 2017). "Inside Barack Obama's final hours in the White House". USA Today. ^ Kosinski, Michelle; Daniella Diaz (May 27, 2016). "Peek inside Obama's post-presidential pad". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2017. ^ Rottinghaus, Brandon; Justin S. Vaughn (February 13, 2015). "Measuring Obama against the great presidents". Brookings. ^ "Former President Barack H. Obama Announced as Recipient of 2017 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. March 2, 2017. Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. ^ Shear, Michael D. (April 24, 2017). "Obama Steps Back into Public Life, Trying to Avoid One Word: Trump". The New York Times. ^ "Obama endorses Macron in French election". Politico. May 4, 2017. ^ Dovere, Edward-Isaac (May 25, 2017). "Obama in Berlin: 'We can't hide behind a wall'". Politico. ^ Seipel, Brooke (May 27, 2017). "Obama visits Prince Harry at Kensington Palace". The Hill. ^ "Obamas Sign Deal With Netflix, Form 'Higher Ground Productions'". NPR.org. Retrieved September 17, 2018. ^ Harris, Hunter (May 21, 2018). "The Obamas Will Produce Movies and Shows for Netflix". Vulture. Retrieved September 17, 2018. ^ Lee, MJ (June 1, 2017). "Obama pans Trump withdrawal from climate deal". CNN. ^ Greenwood, Max (June 22, 2017). "Obama slams 'fundamental meanness' of Senate healthcare bill". The Hill. ^ Abramson, Alana (September 20, 2017). "Barack Obama Criticizes '50th or 60th' Attempt to Repeal the Affordable Care Act". Time. ^ Liptak, Kevin (September 5, 2017). "Obama slams Trump for rescinding DACA, calls move 'cruel'". CNN. ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). "Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief". The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2017. ^ "Obama, opening his foundation's first summit, calls for fixing civic culture". Politico. October 31, 2017. ^ Debenedetti, Gabriel (June 24, 2018). "Where Is Barack Obama?". New York. ^ Haas, Benjamin (December 1, 2017). "Obama and Xi: all smiles as 'veteran cadres' reunite in Beijing". The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ Zheng, Sarah (November 29, 2017). "Obama to meet Xi in Beijing during three-day Asia trip". South China Morning Post. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ Nandy, Sumana. "In New Delhi, Barack Obama's Message To Future Leaders: Highlights". NDTV.com. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ "Barack Obama to PM Narendra Modi: 'India should not be split on sectarian lines'". The Indian Express. December 2, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ Carter, Brandon (December 1, 2017). "Obama meets with Dalai Lama during trip abroad". TheHill. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ "Obama laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ Herron, Elise (October 1, 2018). "Barack Obama Endorses Oregon Gov. Kate Brown For Re-Election". Willamette Week. Retrieved October 17, 2018. ^ "Obama rallies in Las Vegas, tells crowd to "remember who started" economic growth". CBS News. October 22, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018. ^ Kennedy, Merrit (October 24, 2018). "Apparent 'Pipe Bombs' Mailed To Clinton, Obama And CNN". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2018. ^ ""Potentially destructive devices" sent to Clinton, Obama, CNN prompt massive response". CBS News. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018. ^ a b "Obama Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act". ABC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017. ^ Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 11121116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN0278-2715. PMID20530339. Archived from the original on December 5, 2016. ^ Blumenthal, David; Abrams, Melinda; Nuzum, Rachel (June 18, 2015). "The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (25): 24512458. doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614. ISSN0028-4793. PMID25946142. ^ Cohen, Alan B.; Colby, David C.; Wailoo, Keith A.; Zelizer, Julian E. (June 1, 2015). Medicare and Medicaid at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care. Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0190231569. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Pear, Robert (March 23, 2010). "Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law". The New York Times. ^ Long, Heather (January 6, 2017). "Final tally: Obama created 11.3 million jobs". CNN. ^ "Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform". CBS News. Retrieved March 15, 2017. ^ Crary, David (January 4, 2017), "LGBT activists view Obama as staunch champion of their cause", Associated Press. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (July 22, 2011), Obama Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy, The New York Times. ^ Merrit Kennedy (June 30, 2016). "Pentagon Says Transgender Troops Can Now Serve Openly". NPR. ^ Michael Smith & Frank Newport, Americans Assess Progress Under Obama, The Gallup Organization (January 9, 2017). ^ Zenko, Micah (January 12, 2016). "Obama's Embrace of Drone Strikes Will Be a Lasting Legacy". The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2019. ^ "Targeted Killings". Council on Foreign Relations. ^ Grandin, Greg (January 15, 2017). "Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?". The Nation. Retrieved January 11, 2018. ^ Agerholm, Harriet (January 19, 2017). "Map shows where President Barack Obama dropped his 20,000 bombs". The Independent. Retrieved January 11, 2018. ^ Parsons, Christi; Hennigan, W. J. (January 13, 2017). "President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war". Los Angeles Times. ^ "DoD Personnel, Workforce Reports & Publications". www.dmdc.osd.mil. ^ Gramlich, John (January 5, 2017). "Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend". Pew Research Center. ^ "Obama leaving office at 60% approval rating". United Press International. Retrieved February 26, 2017. ^ Director, Jennifer Agiesta, CNN. "Obama approval hits 60% as end of term approaches". CNN. Retrieved February 26, 2017. ^ "Total Scores/Overall Rankings". Presidential Historians Survey. C-SPAN. 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017. ^ Von Drehle, David (February 17, 2017). "Barack Obama Ranked 12th Best U.S. President Ever in Major Survey of Historians". Time. Retrieved February 18, 2017. ^ "Obama Foundation FAQs". Barack Obama Foundation.

References

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  • Jacobs, Sally H. (2011). The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN978-1586487935.
  • Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN978-1439160404.
  • Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-06-085820-9.
  • Obama, Barack (2004) [1st pub. 1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN978-1400082773.
  • Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN978-0307237699.
  • Scott, Janny (2011). A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN978-1594487972.

Further reading

  • Graff, Garrett M. (November 1, 2006). "The Legend of Barack Obama". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Koltun, Dave (2005). "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star"". In Ahuja, Sunil; Dewhirst, Robert (eds.). The Road to Congress 2004. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN978-1-59454-360-9.
  • Lizza, Ryan (September 2007). "Above the Fray". GQ. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  • Larissa MacFarquhar (May 7, 2007). "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • McClelland, Edward (2010). Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN978-1608190607.
  • Zutter, Hank De (December 8, 1995). "What Makes Obama Run?". Chicago Reader. Retrieved April 25, 2015.

External links

Official

  • Official website of The Office of Barack and Michelle Obama
  • Official website of The Obama Foundation
  • Official website of the Barack Obama Presidential Library
  • Official website of Organizing for Action
  • White House biography

Other

  • Column archive at The Huffington Post
  • Barack Obama at the Encyclop?dia Britannica
  • Obama B. United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps. JAMA. Published online July 11, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9797.
  • Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare". Time magazine. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act'". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  • Obama B. "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform". Harvard Law Review. Published January 5, 2017.
  • Barack Obama at Curlie
  • United States Congress. "Barack Obama (id: O000167)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Barack Obama articles in the archive of the Chicago Tribune
  • Collected news and commentary at the Tampa Bay Times's PolitiFact.com
  • Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post's Fact Checker blog
  • "Barack Obama is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history" by Vox author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context.
  • Making Obama. Making. 2018. WBEZ. "Former President Barack Obamaalong with key advisers, mentors, and rivalstells the story of his climb from Chicago to the national stage."
  • Works by Barack Obama at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Barack Obama at Internet Archive
  • Works by Barack Obama at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • Barack Obama on IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  • v
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Barack Obama
  • 44th President of the United States (20092017)
  • U.S. Senator from Illinois (20052008)
  • Illinois Senator from the 13th district (19972004)
Life and politics
  • Early life and career
  • Illinois Senate career
  • 2004 Democratic National Convention
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Presidency
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  • First 100 days
  • Timeline
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Books
  • Dreams from My Father (1995)
  • The Audacity of Hope (2006)
  • Of Thee I Sing (2010)
Speeches
  • "The Audacity of Hope" (2004)
  • "Yes We Can" (2008)
  • "A More Perfect Union" (2008)
  • "Change Has Come to America" (2008)
  • "A New Birth of Freedom" (2009)
  • Joint session of Congress (2009)
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  • Joint session of Congress (jobs) (2011)
  • "You didn't build that" (2012)
  • Selma 50th anniversary (2015)
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Elections
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  • Illinois's 1st congressional district election, 2000
  • United States Senate election, 2004
  • Democratic presidential primaries, 2008
  • 2012
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    • endorsements
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    • endorsements
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    • international reactions
Family
  • Michelle Obama (wife)
  • Ann Dunham (mother)
  • Barack Obama Sr. (father)
  • Lolo Soetoro (step-father)
  • Maya Soetoro-Ng (maternal half-sister)
  • Stanley Armour Dunham (maternal grandfather)
  • Madelyn Dunham (maternal grandmother)
  • Marian Shields Robinson (mother-in-law)
  • Craig Robinson (brother-in-law)
  • Bo (family dog)
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Public imageNews and
political events
  • Oprah Winfrey's endorsement
  • Citizenship conspiracy theories
    • litigation
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  • Bill Ayers controversy
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  • Republican and conservative support (2008)
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    • 2008 Denver
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Books about
  • Bibliography
  • Obama: From Promise to Power
  • Barack Obama: Der schwarze Kennedy
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Music
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    • "Yes We Can"
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  • "Si Se Puede Cambiar"
  • "My President"
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  • Hope! Das Obama Musical
  • "Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney"
  • Barack's Dubs
  • "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours"
Film
  • By the People: The Election of Barack Obama (2009)
  • Change (2010)
  • 2016: Obama's America (2012)
  • The Road We've Traveled (2012)
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  • Barry (2016)
Other media
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  • < George W. Bush
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  • Category Category
Offices and distinctions Illinois Senate Precededby
Alice Palmer Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district

19972004 Succeededby
Kwame Raoul Party political offices Precededby
Carol Moseley Braun Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois
(Class 3)

2004 Succeededby
Alexi Giannoulias Precededby
Harold Ford Jr. Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
2004 Succeededby
Mark Warner Precededby
John Kerry Democratic nominee for President of the United States
2008, 2012 Succeededby
Hillary Clinton U.S. Senate Precededby
Peter Fitzgerald United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
20052008
Served alongside: Dick Durbin Succeededby
Roland Burris Political offices Precededby
George W. Bush President of the United States
20092017 Succeededby
Donald Trump Awards and achievements Precededby
Martti Ahtisaari Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
2009 Succeededby
Liu Xiaobo U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Precededby
George W. Bush
as Former President Order of Precedence of the United States
Former President
Succeededby
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  • positions)
  • VP nominee Joe Biden
  • (positions)
  • Other candidates:
  • Evan Bayh (campaign)
  • Joe Biden (campaign)
  • Hillary Clinton (campaign)
  • Chris Dodd (campaign)
  • John Edwards (campaign)
  • Mike Gravel (campaign)
  • Dennis Kucinich (campaign)
  • Bill Richardson (campaign)
  • Tom Vilsack (campaign)
Republican Party
  • Convention
  • Primary polls
  • General polls
  • Debates
  • Primaries
  • Primary results
Republican
candidates
  • Nominee John McCain
  • (campaign
  • positions)
  • VP nominee Sarah Palin
  • (candidacy
  • positions)
  • Other candidates:
  • Sam Brownback
  • John Cox
  • Jim Gilmore (campaign)
  • Rudy Giuliani (campaign)
  • Mike Huckabee (campaign)
  • Duncan Hunter (campaign)
  • Alan Keyes (campaign)
  • Ray McKinney
  • Ron Paul (campaign)
  • Mitt Romney (campaign)
  • Tom Tancredo (campaign)
  • Fred Thompson (campaign)
  • Tommy Thompson (campaign)
Draft movements
  • Democratic Party
  • Al Gore
  • Mark Warner (movement)
  • Republican Party
  • Newt Gingrich
  • Condoleezza Rice (movement)
  • Independent
  • Michael Bloomberg (movement)
Third party and independent candidatesConstitution Party
Convention
  • Nominee Chuck Baldwin (campaign)
  • VP nominee Darrell Castle
  • Candidates
  • Daniel Imperato
  • Alan Keyes (campaign)
Green Party
Convention
  • Nominee Cynthia McKinney
  • (campaign
  • positions)
  • VP nominee Rosa Clemente
  • Candidates
  • Elaine Brown
  • Jesse Johnson
  • Kent Mesplay
  • Kat Swift
Libertarian Party
Convention
  • Nominee Bob Barr
  • (campaign
  • positions)
  • VP nominee Wayne Allyn Root
  • Candidates
  • Mike Gravel (campaign)
  • Daniel Imperato
  • Michael Jingozian
  • Steve Kubby
  • Wayne Allyn Root
  • Mary Ruwart
  • Doug Stanhope
America's Independent Party
  • Nominee Alan Keyes (campaign)
  • VP nominee Brian Rohrbough
Boston Tea Party
  • Nominee Charles Jay
Objectivist Party
  • Nominee Tom Stevens
Peace and Freedom Party
  • Nominee Ralph Nader (campaign)
  • VP nominee Matt Gonzalez
  • Candidates:
  • Gloria La Riva
  • Cynthia McKinney (campaign)
  • Brian Moore (campaign)
Prohibition Party
  • Nominee Gene Amondson
Reform Party
  • Nominee Ted Weill
  • VP nominee Frank McEnulty
Socialism and Liberation Party
  • Nominee Gloria La Riva
  • VP nominee Eugene Puryear
Socialist Party
  • Nominee Brian Moore (campaign)
  • VP nominee Stewart Alexander
  • Candidates
  • Eric Chester
Socialist Workers Party
  • Nominee Roger Calero
  • Alternate nominee James Harris
  • VP nominee Alyson Kennedy
Independent / Other
  • Jeff Boss
  • Stephen Colbert
  • Earl Dodge
  • Bradford Lyttle
  • Frank Moore
  • Joe Schriner
  • Jonathon Sharkey
  • Other 2008 elections:
  • House
  • Senate
  • Gubernatorial
  • v
  • t
  • e
(2008 <) 2012 United States presidential election (> 2016)
  • 2012 United States elections
  • Fundraising
  • National polls
  • Statewide polls (pre-2012, early 2012)
  • Timeline
  • General election debates
  • Newspaper endorsements
  • International reactions
  • Hurricane Sandy
Democratic Party
  • Convention
  • Primaries

  • Newspaper endorsements
Incumbent nominee: Barack Obama
  • campaign
  • endorsements
  • positions
Incumbent VP nominee: Joe Biden
  • positions
  • Challengers: Bob Ely
  • Keith Judd
  • Warren Mosler
  • Darcy Richardson
  • Vermin Supreme
  • Randall Terry
  • John Wolfe
Republican Party
  • Convention
  • Primaries
  • Debates

  • Statewide polls
  • National polls

  • Straw polls

  • Newspaper endorsements
Nominee: Mitt Romney
  • campaign
  • endorsements
  • positions
VP nominee: Paul Ryan
  • positions
  • Candidates: Michele Bachmann (campaign)
  • Herman Cain (campaign)
  • Mark Callahan
  • Jack Fellure
  • Newt Gingrich (campaign)
  • Stewart Greenleaf
  • Jon Huntsman (campaign)
  • Gary Johnson (campaign)
  • Fred Karger
  • Andy Martin
  • Thaddeus McCotter (campaign)
  • Jimmy McMillan
  • Roy Moore
  • Ron Paul (campaign)
  • Tim Pawlenty (campaign)
  • Rick Perry (campaign)
  • Buddy Roemer (campaign)
  • Rick Santorum (campaign)
Libertarian Party
  • Convention
Nominee: Gary Johnson
  • campaign
  • positions
VP nominee: Jim Gray
  • Candidates: Jim Duensing
  • R. J. Harris
  • Carl Person
  • Sam Sloan
  • R. Lee Wrights
Green Party
  • Convention
Nominee: Jill Stein (campaign) VP nominee: Cheri Honkala
  • Candidates: Stewart Alexander
  • Roseanne Barr
  • Kent Mesplay
Other third-party and independent candidatesAmerican Independent Party
  • Nominee Tom Hoefling
  • Candidates Wiley Drake
  • Virgil Goode (campaign)
  • Edward C. Noonan
  • Laurie Roth
American Third Position Party
  • Nominee Merlin Miller
  • VP nominee Virginia Abernethy
America's Party
  • Nominee Tom Hoefling
Constitution Party
  • Convention
Nominee Virgil Goode (campaign) VP nominee Jim Clymer
  • Candidates Darrell Castle
  • Laurie Roth
  • Robby Wells
Freedom Socialist Party
  • Nominee Stephen Durham
Grassroots Party
  • Nominee Jim Carlson
Justice Party
  • Nominee Rocky Anderson
  • VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez
Objectivist Party
  • Nominee Tom Stevens
Party for Socialism and Liberation
  • Nominee Peta Lindsay
Peace and Freedom Party
  • Nominee Roseanne Barr
  • VP nominee Cindy Sheehan
  • Candidates Stewart Alexander
  • Rocky Anderson
  • Stephen Durham
  • Peta Lindsay
Prohibition Party
  • Nominee Jack Fellure
  • Candidates James Hedges
Reform Party
  • Nominee Andre Barnett
  • Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff
  • Darcy Richardson
  • Buddy Roemer (campaign)
  • Robert David Steele
  • Robby Wells
Socialist Equality Party
  • Nominee Jerry White
Socialist Workers Party
  • Nominee James Harris
Socialist Party
  • Nominee Stewart Alexander (campaign)
  • VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza
Independents
  • Candidates Lee Abramson
  • Randy Blythe
  • Jeff Boss
  • Robert Burck
  • Terry Jones
  • Joe Schriner
Draft movements
  • Michael Bloomberg (movement)
State results
  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming
  • Other 2012 elections: House
  • Senate
  • Gubernatorial
  • v
  • t
  • e
United States Democratic PartyChairs
of the DNC
  • Hallett
  • McLane
  • Smalley
  • Belmont
  • Schell
  • Hewitt
  • Barnum
  • Brice
  • Harrity
  • Jones
  • Taggart
  • Mack
  • McCombs
  • McCormick
  • Cummings
  • White
  • Hull
  • Shaver
  • Raskob
  • Farley
  • Flynn
  • Walker
  • Hannegan
  • McGrath
  • Boyle
  • McKinney
  • Mitchell
  • Butler
  • Jackson
  • Bailey
  • O'Brien
  • Harris
  • O'Brien
  • Westwood
  • Strauss
  • Curtis
  • White
  • Manatt
  • Kirk
  • Brown
  • Wilhelm
  • DeLee
  • Dodd/Fowler
  • Romer/Grossman
  • Rendell/Andrew
  • McAuliffe
  • Dean
  • Kaine
  • Wasserman Schultz
  • Perez
Presidential
tickets
  • Jackson/Calhoun
  • Jackson/Van Buren
  • Van Buren/R. Johnson
  • Van Buren/None
  • Polk/Dallas
  • Cass/Butler
  • Pierce/King
  • Buchanan/Breckinridge
  • Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD)
  • McClellan/Pendleton
  • Seymour/Blair
  • Greeley/Brown
  • Tilden/Hendricks
  • Hancock/English
  • Cleveland/Hendricks
  • Cleveland/Thurman
  • Cleveland/Stevenson I
  • W. Bryan/Sewall
  • W. Bryan/Stevenson I
  • Parker/H. Davis
  • W. Bryan/Kern
  • Wilson/Marshall (twice)
  • Cox/Roosevelt
  • J. Davis/C. Bryan
  • Smith/Robinson
  • Roosevelt/Garner (twice)
  • Roosevelt/Wallace
  • Roosevelt/Truman
  • Truman/Barkley
  • Stevenson II/Sparkman
  • Stevenson II/Kefauver
  • Kennedy/L. Johnson
  • L. Johnson/Humphrey
  • Humphrey/Muskie
  • McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver)
  • Carter/Mondale (twice)
  • Mondale/Ferraro
  • Dukakis/Bentsen
  • B. Clinton/Gore (twice)
  • Gore/Lieberman
  • Kerry/Edwards
  • Obama/Biden (twice)
  • H. Clinton/Kaine
State and
Territorial
Parties
  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming
  • District of Columbia
  • Guam
  • Puerto Rico
Conventions
(List)
  • 1832 (Baltimore)
  • 1835 (Baltimore)
  • 1840 (Baltimore)
  • 1844 (Baltimore)
  • 1848 (Baltimore)
  • 1852 (Baltimore)
  • 1856 (Cincinnati)
  • 1860 (Baltimore)
  • 1864 (Chicago)
  • 1868 (New York)
  • 1872 (Baltimore)
  • 1876 (Saint Louis)
  • 1880 (Cincinnati)
  • 1884 (Chicago)
  • 1888 (Saint Louis)
  • 1892 (Chicago)
  • 1896 (Chicago)
  • 1900 (Kansas City)
  • 1904 (Saint Louis)
  • 1908 (Denver)
  • 1912 (Baltimore)
  • 1916 (Saint Louis)
  • 1920 (San Francisco)
  • 1924 (New York)
  • 1928 (Houston)
  • 1932 (Chicago)
  • 1936 (Philadelphia)
  • 1940 (Chicago)
  • 1944 (Chicago)
  • 1948 (Philadelphia)
  • 1952 (Chicago)
  • 1956 (Chicago)
  • 1960 (Los Angeles)
  • 1964 (Atlantic City)
  • 1968 (Chicago)
  • 1972 (Miami Beach)
  • 1976 (New York)
  • 1980 (New York)
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  • 1996 (Chicago)
  • 2000 (Los Angeles)
  • 2004 (Boston)
  • 2008 (Denver)
  • 2012 (Charlotte)
  • 2016 (Philadelphia)
  • 2020 (Milwaukee)
Affiliated
groupsCongress
  • Senate Caucus
    • Policy Committee
    • Steering and Outreach Committee
    • United States Senate Democratic Conference Secretary
  • House Caucus
Fundraising
  • Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
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Sectional
  • College Democrats of America
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    • Stonewall Young Democrats
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Related
articles
  • History
  • Primaries
  • Debates
  • Party factions
  • Superdelegate
  • 2005 chairmanship election
  • 2017 chairmanship election
  • 2006 House Caucus leadership election
  • 2018 House Caucus leadership election
  • Weekly Democratic Address
  • v
  • t
  • e
Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize19011925
  • 1901: Henry Dunant/ Frederic Passy
  • 1902: Elie Ducommun/ Charles Gobat
  • 1903: Randal Cremer
  • 1904: Institut de Droit International
  • 1905: Bertha von Suttner
  • 1906: Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1907: Ernesto Moneta/ Louis Renault
  • 1908: Klas Arnoldson/ Fredrik Bajer
  • 1909: A. M. F. Beernaert/ Paul Estournelles de Constant
  • 1910: International Peace Bureau
  • 1911: Tobias Asser/ Alfred Fried
  • 1912: Elihu Root
  • 1913: Henri La Fontaine
  • 1914
  • 1915
  • 1916
  • 1917: International Committee of the Red Cross
  • 1918
  • 1919: Woodrow Wilson
  • 1920: Leon Bourgeois
  • 1921: Hjalmar Branting/ Christian Lange
  • 1922: Fridtjof Nansen
  • 1923
  • 1924
  • 1925: Austen Chamberlain/ Charles Dawes
19261950
  • 1926: Aristide Briand/ Gustav Stresemann
  • 1927: Ferdinand Buisson/ Ludwig Quidde
  • 1928
  • 1929: Frank B. Kellogg
  • 1930: Nathan Soderblom
  • 1931: Jane Addams/ Nicholas Butler
  • 1932
  • 1933: Norman Angell
  • 1934: Arthur Henderson
  • 1935: Carl von Ossietzky
  • 1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas
  • 1937: Robert Cecil
  • 1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees
  • 1939
  • 1940
  • 1941
  • 1942
  • 1943
  • 1944: International Committee of the Red Cross
  • 1945: Cordell Hull
  • 1946: Emily Balch/ John Mott
  • 1947: Friends Service Council/ American Friends Service Committee
  • 1948
  • 1949: John Boyd Orr
  • 1950: Ralph Bunche
19511975
  • 1951: Leon Jouhaux
  • 1952: Albert Schweitzer
  • 1953: George Marshall
  • 1954: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • 1955
  • 1956
  • 1957: Lester B. Pearson
  • 1958: Georges Pire
  • 1959: Philip Noel-Baker
  • 1960: Albert Lutuli
  • 1961: Dag Hammarskjold
  • 1962: Linus Pauling
  • 1963: International Committee of the Red Cross/ League of Red Cross Societies
  • 1964: Martin Luther King Jr.
  • 1965: UNICEF
  • 1966
  • 1967
  • 1968: Rene Cassin
  • 1969: International Labour Organization
  • 1970: Norman Borlaug
  • 1971: Willy Brandt
  • 1972
  • 1973: Le D?c Th?(declined award)/ Henry Kissinger
  • 1974: Sean MacBride/ Eisaku Sato
  • 1975: Andrei Sakharov
19762000
  • 1976: Betty Williams/ Mairead Corrigan
  • 1977: Amnesty International
  • 1978: Anwar Sadat/ Menachem Begin
  • 1979: Mother Teresa
  • 1980: Adolfo Perez Esquivel
  • 1981: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • 1982: Alva Myrdal/ Alfonso Garcia Robles
  • 1983: Lech Walesa
  • 1984: Desmond Tutu
  • 1985: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
  • 1986: Elie Wiesel
  • 1987: Oscar Arias
  • 1988: UN Peacekeeping Forces
  • 1989: Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama)
  • 1990: Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 1991: Aung San Suu Kyi
  • 1992: Rigoberta Menchu
  • 1993: Nelson Mandela/ F. W. de Klerk
  • 1994: Shimon Peres/ Yitzhak Rabin/ Yasser Arafat
  • 1995: Pugwash Conferences/ Joseph Rotblat
  • 1996: Carlos Belo/ Jose Ramos-Horta
  • 1997: International Campaign to Ban Landmines/ Jody Williams
  • 1998: John Hume/ David Trimble
  • 1999: Medecins Sans Frontieres
  • 2000: Kim Dae-jung
2001present
  • 2001: United Nations/ Kofi Annan
  • 2002: Jimmy Carter
  • 2003: Shirin Ebadi
  • 2004: Wangari Maathai
  • 2005: International Atomic Energy Agency/ Mohamed ElBaradei
  • 2006: Grameen Bank/ Muhammad Yunus
  • 2007: Al Gore/ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • 2008: Martti Ahtisaari
  • 2009: Barack Obama
  • 2010: Liu Xiaobo
  • 2011: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf/ Leymah Gbowee/ Tawakkol Karman
  • 2012: European Union
  • 2013: Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
  • 2014: Kailash Satyarthi/ Malala Yousafzai
  • 2015: Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
  • 2016: Juan Manuel Santos
  • 2017: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
  • 2018: Denis Mukwege/ Nadia Murad
  • v
  • t
  • e
Time Persons of the Year19271950
  • Charles Lindbergh (1927)
  • Walter Chrysler (1928)
  • Owen D. Young (1929)
  • Mohandas Gandhi (1930)
  • Pierre Laval (1931)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932)
  • Hugh S. Johnson (1933)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934)
  • Haile Selassie (1935)
  • Wallis Simpson (1936)
  • Chiang Kai-shek / Soong Mei-ling (1937)
  • Adolf Hitler (1938)
  • Joseph Stalin (1939)
  • Winston Churchill (1940)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941)
  • Joseph Stalin (1942)
  • George Marshall (1943)
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944)
  • Harry S. Truman (1945)
  • James F. Byrnes (1946)
  • George Marshall (1947)
  • Harry S. Truman (1948)
  • Winston Churchill (1949)
  • The American Fighting-Man (1950)
19511975
  • Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951)
  • Elizabeth II (1952)
  • Konrad Adenauer (1953)
  • John Foster Dulles (1954)
  • Harlow Curtice (1955)
  • Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956)
  • Nikita Khrushchev (1957)
  • Charles de Gaulle (1958)
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959)
  • U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segre / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960)
  • John F. Kennedy (1961)
  • Pope John XXIII (1962)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. (1963)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson (1964)
  • William Westmoreland (1965)
  • The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)
  • The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968)
  • The Middle Americans (1969)
  • Willy Brandt (1970)
  • Richard Nixon (1971)
  • Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972)
  • John Sirica (1973)
  • King Faisal (1974)
  • American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)
19762000
  • Jimmy Carter (1976)
  • Anwar Sadat (1977)
  • Deng Xiaoping (1978)
  • Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)
  • Ronald Reagan (1980)
  • Lech Walesa (1981)
  • The Computer (1982)
  • Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983)
  • Peter Ueberroth (1984)
  • Deng Xiaoping (1985)
  • Corazon Aquino (1986)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)
  • The Endangered Earth (1988)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)
  • George H. W. Bush (1990)
  • Ted Turner (1991)
  • Bill Clinton (1992)
  • The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993)
  • Pope John Paul II (1994)
  • Newt Gingrich (1995)
  • David Ho (1996)
  • Andrew Grove (1997)
  • Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998)
  • Jeff Bezos (1999)
  • George W. Bush (2000)
2001present
  • Rudolph Giuliani (2001)
  • The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002)
  • The American Soldier (2003)
  • George W. Bush (2004)
  • The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005)
  • You (2006)
  • Vladimir Putin (2007)
  • Barack Obama (2008)
  • Ben Bernanke (2009)
  • Mark Zuckerberg (2010)
  • The Protester (2011)
  • Barack Obama (2012)
  • Pope Francis (2013)
  • Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly / Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah (2014)
  • Angela Merkel (2015)
  • Donald Trump (2016)
  • The Silence Breakers (2017)
  • The Guardians: Jamal Khashoggi / Maria Ressa / Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo / Staff of The Capital (2018)
Wikipedia book Book
  • v
  • t
  • e
United States Senators from IllinoisClass 2
  • Thomas
  • McLean
  • Baker
  • Robinson
  • McRoberts
  • Semple
  • S. Douglas
  • Browning
  • Richardson
  • Yates
  • Logan
  • Davis
  • Cullom
  • Lewis
  • McCormick
  • Deneen
  • Lewis
  • Slattery
  • Brooks
  • P. Douglas
  • Percy
  • Simon
  • Durbin
Class 3
  • Edwards
  • McLean
  • Kane
  • Ewing
  • Young
  • Breese
  • Shields
  • Trumbull
  • Oglesby
  • Logan
  • Farwell
  • Palmer
  • Mason
  • Hopkins
  • Lorimer
  • Sherman
  • McKinley
  • Glenn
  • Dieterich
  • Lucas
  • Dirksen
  • Smith
  • Stevenson III
  • Dixon
  • Moseley Braun
  • Fitzgerald
  • Obama
  • Burris
  • Kirk
  • Duckworth
  • v
  • t
  • e
Patriot ActTitles I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X (History)Acts modified
  • Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
  • Electronic Communications Privacy Act
  • Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
  • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
  • Money Laundering Control Act
  • Bank Secrecy Act
  • Right to Financial Privacy Act
  • Fair Credit Reporting Act
  • Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952
  • Victims of Crime Act of 1984
  • Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act
People
  • George W. Bush
  • John Ashcroft
  • Alberto Gonzales
  • Patrick Leahy
  • Orrin Hatch
  • Jon Kyl
  • Dianne Feinstein
  • Viet D. Dinh
  • Joe Biden
  • Michael Chertoff
  • Barack Obama
  • Eric Holder
  • Chuck Schumer
  • Lamar Smith
  • Bob Graham
  • Jay Rockefeller
  • Arlen Specter
  • Mike Oxley
  • Dick Armey
  • Paul Sarbanes
  • Trent Lott
  • Tom Daschle
  • Russ Feingold
  • Ellen Huvelle
  • Ron Paul
  • Lisa Murkowski
  • Ron Wyden
  • Dennis Kucinich
  • Larry Craig
  • John E. Sununu
  • Richard Durbin
  • Bernie Sanders
  • Jerrold Nadler
  • John Conyers Jr.
  • Butch Otter
Government
organizations
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Department of Justice
  • Select Committee on Intelligence
  • Department of the Treasury
  • FinCEN
  • Department of State
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • Customs Service
  • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Non-government
organizations
  • American Civil Liberties Union
  • American Library Association
  • Center for Democracy and Technology
  • Center for Public Integrity
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation
  • Electronic Privacy Information Center
  • Humanitarian Law Project
  • v
  • t
  • e
Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album1959?1980
  • Stan Freberg The Best of the Stan Freberg Shows (1959)
  • Carl Sandburg Lincoln Portrait (1960)
  • Robert Bialek (producer) FDR Speaks (1961)
  • Leonard Bernstein Humor in Music (1962)
  • Charles Laughton The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963)
  • Edward Albee (playwright) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1964)
  • That Was the Week That Was BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965)
  • Goddard Lieberson (producer) John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966)
  • Edward R. Murrow Edward R. Murrow - A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967)
  • Everett Dirksen Gallant Men (1968)
  • Rod McKuen Lonesome Cities (1969)
  • Art Linkletter & Diane Linkletter We Love You Call Collect (1970)
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971)
  • Les Crane Desiderata (1972)
  • Bruce Botnick (producer) Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973)
  • Richard Harris Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974)
  • Peter Cook and Dudley Moore Good Evening (1975)
  • James Whitmore Give 'em Hell, Harry! (1976)
  • Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones and Orson Welles - Great American Documents (1977)
  • Julie Harris The Belle of Amherst (1978)
  • Orson Welles Citizen Kane Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979)
  • John Gielgud Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare (1980)
1981?2000
  • Pat Carroll Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein (1981)
  • Orson Welles Donovan's Brain (1982)
  • Tom Voegeli (producer) Raiders of the Lost Ark - The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983)
  • William Warfield Lincoln Portrait (1984)
  • Ben Kingsley The Words of Gandhi (1985)
  • Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986)
  • Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins and Sam Phillips Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987)
  • Garrison Keillor Lake Wobegon Days (1988)
  • Jesse Jackson Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson (1989)
  • Gilda Radner It's Always Something (1990)
  • George Burns Gracie: A Love Story (1991)
  • Ken Burns The Civil War (1992)
  • Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993)
  • Maya Angelou On the Pulse of Morning (1994)
  • Henry Rollins Get in the Van (1995)
  • Maya Angelou Phenomenal Woman (1996)
  • Hillary Clinton It Takes a Village (1997)
  • Charles Kuralt Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998)
  • Christopher Reeve Still Me (1999)
  • LeVar Burton The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr. (2000)
2001?present
  • Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001)
  • Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002)
  • Maya Angelou and Charles B. Potter (producer) A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) Live 2002 (2003)
  • Al Franken and Paul Ruben (producer) Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004)
  • Bill Clinton My Life (2005)
  • Barack Obama Dreams from My Father (2006)
  • Jimmy Carter Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee - With Ossie and Ruby (2007)
  • Barack Obama and Jacob Bronstein (producer) The Audacity of Hope (2008)
  • Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon and Blair Underwood An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore (2009)
  • Michael J. Fox Always Looking Up (2010)
  • Jon Stewart The Daily Show with Jon Stewart Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011)
  • Betty White If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012)
  • Janis Ian Society's Child (2013)
  • Stephen Colbert America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014)
  • Joan Rivers Diary of a Mad Diva (2015)
  • Jimmy Carter A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016)
  • Carol Burnett In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017)
  • Carrie Fisher The Princess Diarist (2018)
  • Jimmy Carter Faith: A Journey for All (2019)
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Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Barack_Obama&oldid=902405222"

United States Senate career of Barack Obama
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Barack ObamaBarackObama2005portrait.jpgUnited States Senator
from IllinoisIn office
January 3, 2005 November 16, 2008Serving with Dick DurbinPreceded byPeter FitzgeraldSucceeded byRoland BurrisChairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on European AffairsIn office
January 3, 2007 November 16, 2008Preceded byGeorge F. AllenSucceeded byJeanne ShaheenPersonal detailsBornBarack Hussein Obama II
August 4, 1961
Honolulu, Hawaii, United StatesNationalityAmericanPolitical partyDemocraticSpouse(s)Michelle ObamaResidenceKenwood, Chicago, IllinoisAlma materColumbia University
Harvard Law School

The United States Senate career of Barack Obama began on January 3, 2005 and ended on November 16, 2008.[1] He resigned his seat in the U.S. Senate upon being elected President of the United States. Obama won the seat in an election against Alan Keyes who replaced Republican Primary election winner Jack Ryan.

Prior to his election but after Ryan withdrew from the race, he rose to national prominence by delivering the 2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address. Upon his election, he became the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, the third to have been popularly elected.

As a Senator, he served on a variety of committees and chaired the United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on European Affairs. His bill sponsorship and voting records indicates that he was a loyalist to the Democratic Party. He was considered to be among the most liberal by various analyses. In his first session (109th Congress), he was involved in immigration reform. Legislation bearing his name was passed for armament reduction and federal transparency as well as relief aid.

In the first year of the 110th Congress, he worked on lobbying and campaign finance reform, election reform, climate control and troop reduction. In the second year, he legislated for oversight of certain military discharges, Iran divestment and nuclear terrorism reduction, but President George W. Bush vetoed his legislation for State Children's Health Insurance Program-related military family job protections.

U.S. Senate campaign

See also: 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois

In May 2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate, enlisting political strategist David Axelrod that Fall and formally announcing his candidacy in January 2003.[2] Before deciding to run, Obama met with Jesse Jackson Jr., who was known to be considering a bid for the seat. "He said, 'Jesse, if youre running for the U.S. Senate Im not going to run,'" Jackson said in recounting the conversation to The New York Times in 2008. Jackson told Obama he had already decided not to run.[3]

Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[4] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[5] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[6][7]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[8] In August 2004, with less than three months to go before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[9] A long time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[10]

Through three televised debates, Obama and Keyes expressed opposing views on stem cell research, abortion, gun control, school vouchers, and tax cuts.[11] Obama was criticized by Keyes, as he had also been by rival pro-choice candidates in the Democratic primary, for a series of "present" votes on late-term abortion and parental notification issues.[12] The charge that Obama's "present" votes suggested he was not firmly pro choice was refuted by two lobbyists for pro-choice groups (including Planned Parenthood).[12]

In the general election of November 2004, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[13]

Keynote address

Main article: 2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address

In July 2004, he wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[14] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities.

He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War, and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[15] Broadcasts of the speech by major news organizations launched Obama's status as a national political figure and boosted his campaign for U.S. Senate.[16]

With Obama facing nearly certain victory in his U.S. Senate race against Alan Keyes at the time combined with an overwhelmingly positive reaction to his address, speculation grew about the possibility of a potential Obama candidacy for President of the United States in 2008 or later. Following the speech, Chris Mathews even went as far as predicting that Obama would become the first African-American president.

If he decided to run for President, he would join other African-Americans like Alan Keyes and Shirley Chisholm who had previous presidential runs. But as of 2004, no African-American had received a major party's presidential nomination and no African-American had won a presidential primary since Jesse Jackson in 1988.

In addition, Hillary Clinton was favored by many to become the Democratic nominee and first ever female presidential nominee in 2008 while in contrast to Clinton, Obama's background and issue positions were still unknown to the majority of the public. For the next two years, Obama would downplay speculation of a future presidential run and focus instead on his duties as a U.S. Senator.

Initial work

Although a newcomer to Washington, he recruited a team of established, high-level advisers devoted to broad themes that exceeded the usual requirements of an incoming first-term senator.[17] Obama hired Pete Rouse, a 30-year veteran of national politics and former chief of staff to Senate Democratic Leader Tom Daschle, as his chief of staff, and economist Karen Kornbluh, former deputy chief of staff to Secretary of the Treasury Robert Rubin, as his policy director.[18]

His key foreign policy advisers have included former Clinton administration officials Anthony Lake and Susan Rice, as well as Samantha Power, author on human rights and genocide (who resigned March 7, 2008).[19] Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations;[20] Health, Education, Labor and Pensions; Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; and Veterans' Affairs, and he was a member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[21]

He was a chairman of the Subcommittee on European Affairs.[22] Nonpartisan analyses of bill sponsorship and voting records placed him as a "rank-and-file Democrat" and "Democratic Party loyalist."[23] The U.S. Senate Historical Office lists him as the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, the third to have been popularly elected, and the only African-American serving in the Senate until he resigned his seat in November 2008 in preparation for his new job as the 44th President of the United States[24]

Committees

  • Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (110th Congress)
    • Subcommittee on Children and Families
    • Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety
  • Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (110th Congress)
    • Subcommittee on Investigations
    • Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government Information and International Security
    • Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration
  • United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
  • Committee on Environment and Public Works (109th Congress)
    • Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety
    • Subcommittee on Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife Protection
  • Committee on Foreign Relations
    • Subcommittee on European Affairs (Chairman 110th Congress)
    • Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs
    • Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • Subcommittee on African Affairs
    • Subcommittee on International Development and Foreign Assistance, Economic Affairs, and International Environmental Protection

Source: United States Senate 109th Congress[25] Source: United States Senate 110th Congress[26]

109th Congress

Senator Obama addresses the First Year Student Convocation at Boston College, September 2005.

Obama took an active role in the Senate's drive for improved border security and immigration reform. In May 2005, he cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act introduced by Sen. John McCain (RAZ).[27]

He later added three amendments to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act, which passed the Senate in May 2006, but failed to gain majority support in the U.S. House of Representatives.[28]

In September 2006, Obama voted for a related bill, the Secure Fence Act, authorizing construction of fencing and other security improvements along the United StatesMexico border.[29] President Bush signed the Secure Fence Act into law in October 2006, calling it "an important step toward immigration reform."[30]

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (ROK) and Obama discuss the Coburn-Obama Transparency Act.[31]

Partnering first with Sen. Richard Lugar (RIN), and then with Sen. Tom Coburn (ROK), Obama successfully introduced two initiatives bearing his name. Lugar-Obama expands the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons, including shoulder-fired missiles and anti-personnel mines.[32][33][34] The Lugar-Obama initiative subsequently received $48 million in funding.[35]

The Coburn-Obama Transparency Act provides for the web site USAspending.gov, managed by the Office of Management and Budget. The site lists all organizations receiving Federal funds from 2007 onward and provides breakdowns by the agency allocating the funds, the dollar amount given, and the purpose of the grant or contract.[36]

Obama and Coburn also collaborated on repeated efforts to end the abuse of no-bid contracting in the aftermath of natural disasters.[37] In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[38]

As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. In August 2005, he traveled with Richard Lugar to Russia, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan. The trip focused on strategies to control the world's supply of conventional weapons, biological weapons, and weapons of mass destruction as a first defense against potential terrorist attacks.[39]

Following meetings with U.S. military in Kuwait and Iraq in January 2006, Obama visited Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian territories. At a meeting with Palestinian students two weeks before Hamas won the legislative election, Obama warned that "the U.S. will never recognize winning Hamas candidates unless the group renounces its fundamental mission to eliminate Israel."[40]

He left for his third official trip in August 2006, traveling to South Africa, Kenya, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Chad. In a nationally televised speech at the University of Nairobi, he spoke forcefully on the influence of ethnic rivalries and corruption in Kenya.[41] The speech touched off a public debate among rival leaders, some formally challenging Obama's remarks as unfair and improper, others defending his positions.[42]

110th Congress

In the first month of the newly Democratic controlled 110th Congress, Obama worked with Russ Feingold (DWI) to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress and require disclosure of bundled campaign contributions under the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[43]

He joined Chuck Schumer (DNY) in sponsoring S. 453, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, including fraudulent flyers and automated phone calls, as witnessed in the 2006 midterm elections.[44]

Obama's energy initiatives scored pluses and minuses with environmentalists, who welcomed his sponsorship with John McCain (RAZ) of a climate change bill to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by two-thirds by 2050, but were skeptical of his support for a bill promoting liquefied coal production.[45] Obama also introduced the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007, a bill to cap troop levels in Iraq, begin phased redeployment, and remove all combat brigades from Iraq before April 2008.[46]

Drawer of chamber desk XXIV that was once occupied in the U.S. Senate by Barack Obama. Note signature inside lower right half of the drawer. This chamber desk was also formerly occupied in the U.S. Senate by Howard Baker, Paul Simon, Robert F. Kennedy, and Henry Cabot Lodge.[47]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored with Kit Bond (RMO) an amendment to the 2008 Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges, and calling for a review by the Government Accountability Office following reports that the procedure had been used inappropriately to reduce government costs.[48]

He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry,[49] and joined Chuck Hagel (RNE) in introducing legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[50]

A provision from the Obama-Hagel bill was passed by Congress in December 2007 as an amendment to the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill.[50] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to provide one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[51] After passing both houses of Congress with bipartisan majorities, SCHIP was vetoed by President Bush in early October 2007, a move Obama said "shows a callousness of priorities that is offensive to the ideals we hold as Americans."[52]

Legislation and voting record

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

One analysis of bill co-sponsorship classified Obama as a "rank-and-file Democrat". Another, of party-line votes, tagged him a "Democratic Party loyalist."[53] The National Journal, in its 27th annual vote ratings, identified Obama as "the most liberal senator" in 2007,[54] though this conclusion was rated "Barely True" by PolitiFact.[55]

Asked about the Journal's characterization of his voting record, Obama expressed doubts about the survey's methodology and blamed "old politics" categorization of political positions as conservative or liberal for creating predispositions that prevent problem-solving.[56]

Ratings of Obama's liberalism by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), based on 20 ADA-selected votes each year, declined from 100% in 2005 to 95% in 2006, with one vote the ADA counted as not-liberal in 2006, and 75%, with five missed votes, in 2007.[57][58] A study of the voting records of all one hundred senators, using an average of the ratings of seven liberal interest groups, described Obama as "among the least liberal", of the Democrats, scoring an 80%. [59]

Resignation and replacement in the U.S. Senate

After his election to President of the United States, Obama announced on November 13, 2008 his plan to resign his Senate seat, effective on November 16, 2008.[60] On January 12, 2009, the Senate accepted former Illinois Attorney General Roland Burris as Obama's replacement after he was controversially appointed by Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich.[61]

Recognition and honors

While in the U.S. Senate, Obama had a number of awards and honors bestowed on him by various groups. An October 2005 article in the British journal New Statesman listed Obama as one of 10people who could change the world,[62] the only politician included on the list. In 2005 and again in 2007, Time magazine named him one of the world's most influential people.[63]

During his first three years in the U.S. Senate, Obama received Honorary Doctorates of Law from Knox College (2005),[64] University of Massachusetts Boston (2006),[65] Northwestern University (2006),[66] Xavier University of Louisiana (2006),[67] Southern New Hampshire University (2007),[68] Howard University (2007),[69] and Wesleyan University (2008).[70]

The audiobook edition of Dreams from My Father earned Obama the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 2006.[71] He won the award a second time in 2008 for the spoken word edition of The Audacity of Hope.[72] A school in Obama's father's hometown, which the senator visited on his 2006 Kenya trip, was renamed the Senator Barack Obama Primary School.[73]

See also

  • Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama
  • Political positions of Barack Obama
  • Presidential campaign of Barack Obama

Notes

^ "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Archived from the original on April 25, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Becker, Jo and Drew, Christopher, "Pragmatic Politics, Forged on the South Side", The New York Times, May 11, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2008 ^ Davey, Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (April 1, 2007). "Obama's Narrator". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Davey, Monica (May 17, 2004). "From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2008. See also: Jackson, John S (August 2006). "The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race" (PDF). Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute. Southern Illinois University. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ "Official results from the Illinois State Board of Elections". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2009. ^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois". CNN. June 25, 2004. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (August 9, 2004). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star". Union-Tribune (San Diego). Associated Press. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (August 13, 2004). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ For debate transcripts and video, see Alan Keyes Archives: "Alan Keyes and Barack Obama Debate, Hosted by Illinois Radio Network". October 12, 2004. "U.S. Senate Debate Sponsored by the League of Women Voters in Illinois". October 21, 2004. "Debate Sponsored by WTTW and the City Club of Chicago". October 26, 2004. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ a b Zorn, Eric (March 9, 2004). "Disparagement of Obama Votes Doesn't Hold Up". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. "Keyes Assails Obama's Abortion Views". MSNBC. Associated Press. August 9, 2004. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: Youngman, Sam (February 15, 2007). "Abortion Foes Target Obama Because of His Vote Record on Illinois Legislation". The Hill. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois". CNN. Retrieved April 13, 2008. Slevin, Peter (November 13, 2007). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ For details about the speech's genesis and delivery, see: Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83: Is He the New Face of The Democratic Party?". Columbia College Today. Archived from the original on January 4, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2008. See also: Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech". Chicago Magazine. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Obama, Barack (July 27, 2004). "Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention". BarackObama.com. Archived from the original (text or video) on April 3, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Archibold, Randal C (July 29, 2004). "The Illinois Candidate; Day After, Keynote Speaker Finds Admirers Everywhere". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2008. Roach, Ronald (October 7, 2004). "Obama Rising". Black Issues in Higher Education. DiverseEducation.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008. ^ Babington, Charles; Shailagh Murray (December 8, 2006). "For Now, an Unofficial Rivalry". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
Dorning, Mike (September 17, 2007). "Obama's Policy Team Loaded with All-Stars". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 21, 2008. ^ Enda, Jodi (February 5, 2006). "Great Expectations". The American Prospect. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
Bacon Jr., Perry (August 27, 2007). "The Outsider's Insider". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Traub, James (November 4, 2007). "Is (His) Biography (Our) Destiny?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
King, Neil (September 5, 2007). "Obama Tones Foreign-Policy Muscle". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
Sweet, Lynn (May 10, 2007). "Obama Taps Influential Foreign Policy Experts". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ [http://www.salon.com/opinion/conason/2007/12/29/obama_europe/ Barack Obama's chairmanship of the Senate Subcommittee on European Affairs], Salon ^ "Committee Assignments". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. Archived from the original on December 9, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
"Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
See also: Zeleny, Jeff (June 26, 2005). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His PointWith Subtlety". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Tom Baldwin, 'Stay-at-home' Barack Obama comes under fire for a lack of foreign experience, The Times ^ "Members of Congress: Barack Obama". GovTrack. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
Curry, Tom (February 21, 2008). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal". MSNBC. Retrieved March 31, 2008. ^ "Breaking New Ground: African-American Senators". U.S. Senate Historical Office. Retrieved February 11, 2008. ^ Erickson, Nancy, ed. (2011). Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Ninth Congress. United States Government Printing Office. ^ Erickson, Nancy, ed. (2011). Committee and Subcommittee Assignments for the One Hundred Tenth Congress. United States Government Printing Office. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (May 12, 2005). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Immigration Bill Divides House, Senate". USA Today. September 22, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: "Obama Statement on Senate Passage of Immigration Reform Bill". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. May 25, 2006. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence". CBS 2 (Chicago). November 20, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "President Bush Signs Secure Fence Act". White House. October 26, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act". White House. September 26, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 2nd Session (May 25, 2006). "S. 2566, Cooperative Proliferation Detection, Interdiction Assistance, and Conventional Threat Reduction Act of 2006". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Lugar, Richard G; Barack Obama (December 3, 2005). "Junkyard Dogs of War". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Lugar-Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Obama, Lugar Secure Funding for Implementation of Nonproliferation Law". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. June 28, 2007. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 2nd Session (April 6, 2006). "S. 2590, Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. "President Bush Signs Coburn-Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office. September 26, 2006. Archived from the original on January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Schor, Elana (September 14, 2006). "Obama and Coburn revive effort to stop no-bid FEMA contracts". The Hill. Retrieved September 9, 2008. ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 2nd Session (January 3, 2006). "S. 2125, Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Goudie, Chuck (January 12, 2006). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor". ABC 7 News (Chicago). Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud". News24.com. August 28, 2006. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Wamalwa, Chris (September 2, 2006). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark". The Standard (Nairobi). Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2008. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (September 4, 2006). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims". The Standard (Nairobi). Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2008. ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (November 15, 2007). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel". The Hill. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Weixel, Nathaniel (December 5, 2007). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation". The Hill. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: "Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007". Federal Election Commission. September 24, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Stern, Seth (January 31, 2007). "Obama-Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation". The New York Times. CQPolitics.com. Retrieved January 14, 2008. U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 31, 2007). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: "Honesty in Elections" (editorial). The New York Times. January 31, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ H. Josef, Hebert (January 29, 2007). "Congress Begins Tackling Climate Issues". CBS News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Williamson, Elizabeth (January 10, 2007). "The Green Gripe With Obama: Liquefied Coal Is Still... Coal". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Krystin, E. Kasak (February 7, 2007). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home". Medill News Service. nwi.com. Retrieved January 14, 2008. "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee." U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 30, 2007). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Senate chamber desks: Desk XXIV. United States Senate. Retrieved January 8, 2009. ^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office. October 1, 2007. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: Dine, Philip (December 23, 2007). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved February 11, 2008. ^ U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (May 17, 2007). "S. 1430, Iran Sanctions Enabling Act". Thomas. Retrieved January 14, 2008. See also: Graham-Silverman, Adam (September 12, 2007). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran". CQ Today. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ a b "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Pugh, Tony; Margaret Talev (October 4, 2007). "Battles Set After Health Bill Veto". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Members of Congress: Barack Obama". GovTrack. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
Nather, David (January 14, 2008). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama". CQ Weekly. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
See also: Curry, Tom (February 21, 2008). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal". MSNBC. Retrieved April 8, 2008. ^ "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007". National Journal. January 31, 2008. Archived from the original on April 28, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also: "From The Editor". Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008. and "Key Votes Used To Calculate The Ratings". Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008. ^ http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2008/jun/16/Obama-lefty/ ^ "Obama Interview". WJLA-TV. February 12, 2008. Archived from the original (transcript) on June 25, 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. ^ "Senator Barack H. Obama Jr. (IL)". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved April 27, 2008. ^ "2007 Congressional Voting Record Inside" (PDF). ADA Today. Americans for Democratic Action. February 2008. Retrieved April 27, 2008. ^ "Election 2008: Presidential, Senate and House Races". electoral-vote.com. April 9, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008. ^ Baker, Peter (November 14, 2008). "ON THE WHITE HOUSE; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2008. ^ Raju, Manu; Bresnahan, John (January 12, 2009). "Dems accept Burris into the Senate". Politico. ^ Skidelsky, William (October 17, 2005). "Revolutionising the Future: From Tennis to Teleportation". New Statesman. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Bacon Jr., Perry (April 18, 2005). "Barack Obama: The Future of the Democratic Party?". Time. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Klein, Joe (May 14, 2007). "The TIME 100: Barack Obama". Time. Retrieved January 14, 2009. ^ "Commencement 2005: Knox honors U.S. Senator Barack Obama". Knox College. May 10, 2005. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "U.S. Sen. Barack Obama to Receive Honorary Degree, Address 2,500 UMass Boston Graduates". University of Massachusetts Boston. May 26, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Commencement 2006: Sen. Obama to Address Grads". Northwestern University. June 6, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Sen. Obama Addresses Xavier Graduates". USA Today. Associated Press. August 13, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "SNHU Commencement with Sen. Barack Obama". Southern New Hampshire University. May 19, 2007. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ Helman, Scott (September 28, 2007). "Obama Calls the 'Joshua Generation'". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ [1] ^ Boliek, Brooks (September 6, 2006). "Sen. Obama Finally Gets His Grammy". Reuters/Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 18, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ^ "Obama Wins a Grammy for 'Hope' Book". KVOA.com. Associated Press. February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2008. ^ Gnecchi, Nico (August 27, 2006). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya". Voice of America. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2008.

Further reading

  • Curry, Jessica. "Barack Obama: Under the Lights", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Graff, Garrett. "The Legend of Barack Obama", Washingtonian, November 1, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Lizza, Ryan. "Above the Fray", GQ, September 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • MacFarquhar, Larissa. "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?", New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Mundy, Liza. "A Series of Fortunate Events", Washington Post Magazine, August 12, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Wallace-Wells, Ben. "Destiny's Child", Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Zutter, Hank De. "What Makes Obama Run?", Chicago Reader, December 8, 1995. Retrieved January 14, 2008.

External links

Barack Obamaat Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Wikimedia Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Quotations from Wikiquote
  • Texts from Wikisource
  • Textbooks from Wikibooks
  • Resources from Wikiversity
  • United States Senate career of Barack Obama at the United States Congress
  • Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Profile at Vote Smart
  • Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
Political offices Precededby
Alice J. Palmer Illinois State Senator from 13th district
January 8, 1997 November 4, 2004 Succeededby
Kwame Raoul U.S. Senate Precededby
Peter Fitzgerald U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
January 4, 2005 November 16, 2008
Served alongside: Richard Durbin Succeededby
Roland Burris Party political offices Precededby
Carol Moseley Braun Democratic Party nominee for Senator from Illinois
(Class 3)

2004 Succeededby
Alexi Giannoulias U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Precededby
Mel Martinez United States order of precedence
United States Senators by seniority (2007) Succeededby
Ken Salazar
  • v
  • t
  • e
Barack Obama
  • 44th President of the United States (20092017)
  • U.S. Senator from Illinois (20052008)
  • Illinois Senator from the 13th district (19972004)
Life and politics
  • Early life and career
  • Illinois Senate career
  • 2004 Democratic National Convention
  • U.S. Senate career
  • Political positions
    • Administration foreign policy
    • Economic
    • Energy
    • Mass surveillance
    • Social
    • Space
  • Nobel Peace Prize
  • West Wing Week
Presidency
  • Transition
  • 2009 inauguration
  • 2013 inauguration
  • First 100 days
  • Timeline
    • 2009
    • 2010
    • 2011
    • 2012
    • 2013
    • 2014
    • 2015
    • 2016
    • January 2017
  • Foreign policy
    • War in Afghanistan
    • Iraq withdrawal
    • Death of Osama bin Laden
    • Iran deal
    • Cuban thaw
    • Obama Doctrine
  • Health Care reform
  • Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act
  • New START
  • Pardons
  • Presidential trips
    • international
    • 2009
    • 2010
    • 2011
    • 2012
    • 2013
    • 2014
    • 2015
    • 2016
  • Judicial appointments
    • Supreme Court
    • controversies
  • Cabinet
  • Presidential Library and Center
Books
  • Dreams from My Father (1995)
  • The Audacity of Hope (2006)
  • Of Thee I Sing (2010)
Speeches
  • "The Audacity of Hope" (2004)
  • "Yes We Can" (2008)
  • "A More Perfect Union" (2008)
  • "Change Has Come to America" (2008)
  • "A New Birth of Freedom" (2009)
  • Joint session of Congress (2009)
  • "A New Beginning" (2009)
  • Joint session of Congress (health care reform) (2009)
  • State of the Union Address
    • 2010
    • 2011
    • 2012
    • 2013
    • 2014
    • 2015
    • 2016
  • Tucson memorial speech (2011)
  • Joint session of Congress (jobs) (2011)
  • "You didn't build that" (2012)
  • Selma 50th anniversary (2015)
  • Farewell address (2017)
Elections
  • Illinois State Senate election, 1996, 1998, 2002
  • Illinois's 1st congressional district election, 2000
  • United States Senate election, 2004
  • Democratic presidential primaries, 2008
  • 2012
    • Obama primary campaign, 2008
  • Democratic National Convention, 2008
  • 2012
  • Presidential campaign, 2008
    • endorsements
    • GOP/conservative support
  • Presidential election, 2008
  • Presidential campaign, 2012
    • endorsements
  • Presidential election, 2012
    • international reactions
Family
  • Michelle Obama (wife)
  • Ann Dunham (mother)
  • Barack Obama Sr. (father)
  • Lolo Soetoro (step-father)
  • Maya Soetoro-Ng (maternal half-sister)
  • Stanley Armour Dunham (maternal grandfather)
  • Madelyn Dunham (maternal grandmother)
  • Marian Shields Robinson (mother-in-law)
  • Craig Robinson (brother-in-law)
  • Bo (family dog)
  • Sunny (family dog)
Public imageNews and
political events
  • Oprah Winfrey's endorsement
  • Citizenship conspiracy theories
    • litigation
    • legislation
  • Religion conspiracy theories
  • Bill Ayers controversy
  • Jeremiah Wright controversy
  • Republican and conservative support (2008)
  • Assassination threats
    • 2008 Denver
    • 2008 Tennessee
  • First inauguration invitations
  • Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial
  • Citizen's Briefing Book
  • Tea Party protests
  • New Energy for America
  • Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
  • Gates-Crowley Rose Garden meeting
  • Firing of Shirley Sherrod
  • Impeachment efforts
Books about
  • Bibliography
  • Obama: From Promise to Power
  • Barack Obama: Der schwarze Kennedy
  • Redemption Song
  • The Case Against Barack Obama
  • The Obama Nation
  • Culture of Corruption
  • Catastrophe
  • Barack and Michelle
  • The Speech
  • The Obama Story
  • Game Change
  • Game Change 2012
  • Rising Star
Music
  • Obama Girl
    • "I Got a Crush... on Obama"
  • "Barack the Magic Negro"
  • will.i.am
    • "Yes We Can"
    • "We Are the Ones"
  • "There's No One as Irish as Barack O'Bama"
  • "Si Se Puede Cambiar"
  • "My President"
  • "Deadheads for Obama"
  • "Air and Simple Gifts"
  • Change Is Now
  • Hope! Das Obama Musical
  • "Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney"
  • Barack's Dubs
  • "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours"
Film
  • By the People: The Election of Barack Obama (2009)
  • Change (2010)
  • 2016: Obama's America (2012)
  • The Road We've Traveled (2012)
  • Southside with You (2016)
  • Barry (2016)
Other media
  • On social media
  • Artists for Obama
  • "Hope" poster
  • "Joker" poster
  • Situation Room
  • Obama logo
  • In comics
Miscellaneous
  • Barack Obama Day (Illinois)
  • Obama Day (Kenya)
  • Awards and honors
  • Namesakes
  • < George W. Bush
  • Donald Trump >
  • Wikipedia book Book
  • Category Category
  • v
  • t
  • e
United States Senators from IllinoisClass 2
  • Thomas
  • McLean
  • Baker
  • Robinson
  • McRoberts
  • Semple
  • S. Douglas
  • Browning
  • Richardson
  • Yates
  • Logan
  • Davis
  • Cullom
  • Lewis
  • McCormick
  • Deneen
  • Lewis
  • Slattery
  • Brooks
  • P. Douglas
  • Percy
  • Simon
  • Durbin
Class 3
  • Edwards
  • McLean
  • Kane
  • Ewing
  • Young
  • Breese
  • Shields
  • Trumbull
  • Oglesby
  • Logan
  • Farwell
  • Palmer
  • Mason
  • Hopkins
  • Lorimer
  • Sherman
  • McKinley
  • Glenn
  • Dieterich
  • Lucas
  • Dirksen
  • Smith
  • Stevenson III
  • Dixon
  • Moseley Braun
  • Fitzgerald
  • Obama
  • Burris
  • Kirk
  • Duckworth
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Senate_career_of_Barack_Obama&oldid=901894612"
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