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was jake gyllenhaal in jurassic park
Jurassic Park (film)
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the original 1993 film. For the franchise, see Jurassic Park. For other uses, see Jurassic Park (disambiguation).

Jurassic ParkA black poster featuring a red shield with a stylized Tyrannosaurus skeleton under a plaque reading "Jurassic Park". Below is the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making".Theatrical release posterDirected bySteven SpielbergProduced by
  • Kathleen Kennedy
  • Gerald R. Molen
Screenplay by
  • Michael Crichton
  • David Koepp
Based onJurassic Park
by Michael CrichtonStarring
  • Sam Neill
  • Laura Dern
  • Jeff Goldblum
  • Richard Attenborough
  • Bob Peck
  • Martin Ferrero
  • BD Wong
  • Samuel L. Jackson
  • Wayne Knight
  • Joseph Mazzello
  • Ariana Richards
Music byJohn WilliamsCinematographyDean CundeyEdited byMichael KahnProduction
company Amblin Entertainment Distributed byUniversal PicturesRelease date
  • June9,1993 (Uptown Theater)
  • June11,1993 (United States)
Running time126 minutes[1]CountryUnited StatesLanguageEnglishBudget$63 million[2]Box office$1.030 billion[2]

Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen. It is the first installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, and is based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton and a screenplay written by Crichton and David Koepp. The film is set on the fictional island of Isla Nublar, located off Central America's Pacific Coast near Costa Rica. There, wealthy businessman John Hammond and a team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of de-extinct dinosaurs. When industrial sabotage leads to a catastrophic shutdown of the park's power facilities and security precautions, a small group of visitors and Hammond's grandchildren struggle to survive and escape the perilous island.

Before Crichton's novel was published, four studios put in bids for its film rights. With the backing of Universal Studios, Spielberg acquired the rights for $1.5 million before its publication in 1990; Crichton was hired for an additional $500,000 to adapt the novel for the screen. Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence and made numerous changes to the characters.

Filming took place in California and Hawaii between August and November 1992, and post-production rolled until May 1993, supervised by Spielberg in Poland as he filmed Schindler's List. The dinosaurs were created with groundbreaking computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and with life-sized animatronic dinosaurs built by Stan Winston's team. To showcase the film's sound design, which included a mixture of various animal noises for the dinosaur roars, Spielberg invested in the creation of DTS, a company specializing in digital surround sound formats. The film also underwent an extensive $65 million marketing campaign, which included licensing deals with over 100 companies.

Jurassic Park premiered on June 9, 1993, at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C., and was released on June 11 in the United States. It went on to gross over $914 million worldwide in its original theatrical run becoming the highest-grossing film of 1993 and the highest-grossing film ever at the time, a record held until the release of Titanic in 1997. It received highly positive reviews from critics, who praised its special effects, John Williams' musical score, and Spielberg's direction. Following its 3D re-release in 2013 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, Jurassic Park became the seventeenth film in history to surpass $1billion in ticket sales. The film won more than twenty awards, including three Academy Awards for its technical achievements in visual effects and sound design. Jurassic Park is considered a landmark in the development of computer-generated imagery and animatronic visual effects. The film was followed by four commercially successful sequels: The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), Jurassic Park III (2001), Jurassic World (2015), and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018), with a fifth sequel, Jurassic World: Dominion, scheduled for a 2021 release.

In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[3]


Wealthy businessman John Hammond has created an animal theme park called Jurassic Park, featuring cloned dinosaurs and prehistoric plants, on the Costa Rican island of Isla Nublar. Following an accident at the site in which a worker is killed, lawyer Donald Gennaro, representing Hammond's investors, insists that he gets experts to certify his park is safe.

Hammond takes a group consisting of Gennaro, mathematician and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm, paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant and paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler, to see the park. They are shocked to see living dinosaurs, including Brachiosaurus, upon arriving. Hammond reveals that the dinosaurs were created by a team of genetic scientists through cloning, a process that uses preserved ancient DNA from mosquitoes that are found inside amber, with DNA from frogs being used to fill in missing genomes. Chief geneticist Dr. Henry Wu points out that breeding is prevented by having all dinosaurs genetically engineered as females, but Malcolm theorizes that nature will overcome this obstacle in time.

Hammond arranges for the group, joined by his grandchildren Tim and Lex, to take a tour of the island in electric vehicles, while he oversees the tour from the control room with computer worker Ray Arnold and lead computer programmer Dennis Nedry. The group encounters a sick Triceratops during the tour, but other dinosaurs fail to appear, and the tour is cut short when a tropical storm approaches the island. Sattler stays behind with the park's veterinarian to study the Triceratops, while the rest of the group heads back to the visitor center.

Nedry had earlier been approached by Dodgson, a representative of a rival corporation, to steal dinosaur embryos for them. With most of the park's employees leaving for the mainland, Nedry shuts down the park's security systems to gain access to the embryos and the island's dock, where he will drop off the embryos. Nedry's sabotage also cuts power to the tour vehicles, stranding them in front of the Tyrannosaurus rex paddock as the storm hits. The Tyrannosaurus escapes the paddock and attacks the vehicles, devouring Gennaro, injuring Malcolm, and forcing Grant, Tim and Lex into the park's dinosaur reserves. Sattler, joining the park's game warden Robert Muldoon, attempts to rescue them, but they are only able to find Malcolm and must retreat with him when the Tyrannosaurus briefly pursues them. Nedry, having acquired the embryos, attempts to reach the dock, but loses his way in the storm, becomes stranded, and is killed by a Dilophosaurus.

The storm passes, and the following morning, Grant and the children come across broken egg shells. Grant deduces that the dinosaurs were given the DNA of west African frogs, who can change from male to female in a single-sex environment, thus proving Malcolm right that breeding control methods would fail. The trio proceeds to return to the visitor center.

Meanwhile, Arnold decides to reboot the park's systems to undo Nedry's sabotage and restore full power. He heads to a maintenance shed to turn circuit breakers back on, while the others take shelter in an emergency bunker. When Arnold fails to return, Sattler and Muldoon head for the shed, whereupon they discover that the reboot has freed the Velociraptors. Muldoon goes into the jungle to hunt the Velociraptors, while Sattler reaches the shed safely. In the shed, she turns the park systems back on and flees a Velociraptor which had killed Arnold. Meanwhile, Muldoon attempts to kill the other Velociraptors, but is ambushed and killed by one of them.

After returning to the visitor center, Grant leaves the children behind to search for Sattler. Velociraptors attempt to attack Lex and Tim, but they evade the dinosaurs and reunite with Grant and Sattler. In the control room, the group completes the reboot for the park's systems, but they are subsequently pursued across the visitor center by the Velociraptors. The group is cornered by the Velociraptors until the Tyrannosaurus arrives through a big hole in the center's wall and kills the Velociraptors, saving the group and allowing them to escape.

Picked up by Hammond and Malcolm, Grant announces he will not endorse the park, and Hammond agrees. The group gets to a helicopter that was sent out to rescue them and they leave the island peacefully as they return to the mainland.


Main article: List of Jurassic Park characters
  • Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant
  • Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler
  • Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm
  • Richard Attenborough as John Hammond
  • Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon
  • Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro
  • BD Wong as Dr. Henry Wu
  • Joseph Mazzello as Tim Murphy
  • Ariana Richards as Lex Murphy
  • Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold
  • Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry
  • Jerry Molen as Dr. Harding
  • Miguel Sandoval as Juanito Rostagno
  • Cameron Thor as Dodgson



Michael Crichton wearing a suit. Michael Crichton's book attracted the attention of director Steven Spielberg even before it was published. The author was also responsible for the film's first scripts.

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur. He continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park.[4] Before its publication, Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989, while he was discussing a screenplay with Crichton that would become the television series ER.[5] Spielberg recognized what really fascinated him about Jurassic Park was it was "a really credible look at how dinosaurs might someday be brought back alongside modern mankind", going beyond a simple monster movie.[6]

Before the book was published, Crichton had demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million for the film rights and a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Pictures and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights,[5] but Universal Studios eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg.[7] After completing Hook, Spielberg wanted to film Schindler's List. Sid Sheinberg, president of Music Corporation of America (Universal Pictures's parent company at the time) gave the green light to Schindler's List on the condition Spielberg make Jurassic Park first.[5] He said later by choosing a creature-driven thriller, "I was really just trying to make a good sequel to Jaws, on land."[8] Spielberg also cited Godzilla as an inspiration for Jurassic Park, specifically Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), which he grew up watching.[9] During production, Spielberg described Godzilla as "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening."[10]

To create the dinosaurs, Spielberg thought of hiring Bob Gurr, who designed a giant mechanical King Kong for Universal Studios Hollywood's King Kong Encounter. Upon reflection, he felt life-sized dinosaurs would be too expensive and not at all convincing. Instead Spielberg sought the best effects supervisors in Hollywood. He brought in Stan Winston to create the animatronic dinosaurs; Phil Tippett (credited as Dinosaur Supervisor) to create go motion dinosaurs for long shots; Michael Lantieri to supervise the on-set effects; and Dennis Muren of Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) to do the digital compositing. Paleontologist Jack Horner supervised the designs,[11] to help fulfill Spielberg's desire to portray the dinosaurs as animals rather than monsters. Certain concepts about dinosaurs, like the theory they evolved into birds and had very little in common with lizards, were followed. This prompted the removal of the raptors' flicking tongues in Tippett's early animatics,[12] as Horner complained it was implausible.[13] Winston's department created fully detailed models of the dinosaurs before molding latex skins, which were fitted over complex robotics. Tippett created stop-motion animatics of the raptors in the kitchen and the Tyrannosaurus attacking the car. Despite go motion's attempts at motion blurs, Spielberg found the end results unsatisfactory for a live-action feature film. Muren told Spielberg he thought the dinosaurs could be built using computer-generated imagery; the director asked him to prove it.[12] ILM animators Mark Dippe and Steve Williams developed a computer-generated walk cycle for the T. rex skeleton and were approved to do more.[14] When Spielberg and Tippett saw an animatic of the T. rex chasing a herd of Gallimimus, Spielberg said, "You're out of a job," to which Tippett replied, "Don't you mean extinct?"[12] Spielberg later injected this exchange into the script, as a conversation between Malcolm and Grant.[15] Although no go motion was used, Tippett and his animators were still used by the production to supervise dinosaur movement. Tippett acted as a consultant for dinosaur anatomy, and his stop motion animators were re-trained as computer animators.[12] The animatics made by Tippett's team were also used, along with the storyboards, as a reference for what would be shot during the action sequences.[16] ILM's artists were sent on private tours to the local animal park, so they could study large animals rhinos, elephants, alligators, and giraffes up close. They also took mime classes to aid in understanding movements.[17]


1917 skeletal diagram of Tyrannosaurus published by Henry Fairfield Osborn, which was the basis of the novel's cover, and subsequently the logo of the movies[18]

Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[19] which he had finished by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was "fairly long" his script had about 10 to 20 percent of the novel's content; scenes were dropped for budgetary and practical reasons, and the violence was toned down.[20] Malia Scotch Marmo began a script rewrite in October 1991 over a five-month period, merging Ian Malcolm with Alan Grant.[21]

Spielberg wanted another writer to rework the script, so Universal president Casey Silver recommended David Koepp, co-writer of Death Becomes Her.[22] Koepp started afresh from Marmo's draft, and used Spielberg's idea of a cartoon shown to the visitors to remove much of the exposition that fills Crichton's novel.[23] While Koepp tried to avoid excessive character detail "because whenever they started talking about their personal lives, you couldn't care less",[24] he tried to flesh out the characters and make for a more colorful cast, with moments such as Malcolm flirting with Sattler leading to Grant's jealousy.[6] Some characterizations were changed from the novel. Hammond went from being a ruthless businessman to a kindly old man, because Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship.[25] He also switched the characters of Tim and Lex; in the book, Tim is aged eleven and interested in computers, and Lex is only seven or eight and interested in sports. Spielberg did this because he wanted to work with the younger Joseph Mazzello, and it allowed him to introduce the sub-plot of Lex's adolescent crush on Grant.[26] Koepp changed Grant's relationship with the children, making him hostile to them initially to allow for more character development.[5]

Two scenes from the book were ultimately excised. Spielberg removed the opening sequence with Procompsognathus attacking a young child as he found it too horrific.[27] For budgetary reasons Koepp cut the T. rex chasing Grant and the children down a river before being tranquilized by Muldoon. Both parts were included in film sequels.[23] Spielberg suggested adding the scene where the T. rex pursues a jeep, which at first only had the characters driving away after hearing the dinosaur's footsteps.[28]


William Hurt was initially offered the role of Alan Grant, but turned it down without reading the script.[29] Harrison Ford was also offered the role of Grant.[30] Sam Neill was ultimately cast as Grant three or four weeks before filming began. Neill said "it all happened real quick. I hadn't read the book, knew nothing about it, hadn't heard anything about it, and in a matter of weeks I'm working with Spielberg."[31] Janet Hirshenson, the film's casting director, felt Jeff Goldblum would be the right choice to play Ian Malcolm after reading the novel. Jim Carrey also auditioned for the role. According to Hirshenson, Carrey "was terrific, too, but I think pretty quickly we all loved the idea of Jeff."[31]

Cameron Thor had previously worked with Spielberg on Hook, and initially auditioned for the role of Malcolm, before trying out for the role of Dodgson. In the film, Dodgson gives Nedry a container disguised as a can of shaving cream that is used to transport the embryos. Thor said about casting, "It just said 'shaving-cream can' in the script, so I spent endless time in a drug store to find the most photogenic. I went with Barbasol, which ended up in the movie. I was so broke that I took the can home after the audition to use it."[32] Laura Dern was Spielberg's first choice for the role of Ellie Sattler[31] though she was not the only actress offered the part. Robin Wright turned down the role.[33] Spielberg chose to cast Wayne Knight after seeing his acting performance in Basic Instinct, saying, "I waited for the credits to roll and wrote his name down."[34][35]

Ariana Richards who plays Lex Murphy, said, "I was called into a casting office, and they just wanted me to scream. I heard later on that Steven had watched a few girls on tape that day, and I was the only one who ended up waking his sleeping wife on the couch, and she came running through the hallway to see if the kids were all right."[31] Christina Ricci also auditioned for the role.[36] Joseph Mazzello had screen-tested for a role in Hook, but was deemed too young. Spielberg promised him they would work together on a future film.[31]


A utility car painted in green, yellow and red colors in a jungle park environment. Replica of the Ford Explorers featured in the film at Universal Studios Japan.

After 25 months of pre-production, filming began on August 24, 1992, on the Hawaiian island of Kaua?i.[37] While Costa Rica was considered as a location given it is the novel's setting, Spielberg's concerns over infrastructure and accessibility made him choose a place where he had already worked.[6] The three-week shoot involved various daytime exteriors for Isla Nublar's forests.[7] On September 11, Hurricane Iniki passed directly over Kaua?i costing a day of shooting.[38] Several of the storm scenes from the movie are actual footage shot during the hurricane. The scheduled shoot of the Gallimimus chase was moved to Kualoa Ranch on the island of Oahu. One of the early scenes had to be created by digitally animating a still shot of scenery.[15] The opening scene was shot in Haiku, on the island of Maui,[39] with additional scenes filmed on the "forbidden island" of Niihau.[40] The exterior of the Visitor Center was a large facade constructed on the grounds of the Valley House Plantation Estate in Kauai.[41] Samuel L. Jackson was to film a lengthy death scene where his character is chased and killed by raptors, but the set was destroyed by Hurricane Iniki.[32]

By mid-September, the crew moved to California,[12] to shoot the raptors in the kitchen at Stage 24 of the Universal studio lot.[7] Given the kitchen set was filled with reflective surfaces, cinematographer Dean Cundey had to carefully plan the illumination while also using black cloths to hide the light reflections.[16] The crew also shot the scenes involving the power supply on Stage 23, before going on location to Red Rock Canyon for the Montana dig scenes.[42] The crew returned to Universal to shoot Grant's rescue of Tim, using a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels for the car fall, and the Brachiosaurus encounter. The crew filmed scenes for the Park's labs and control room, which used animations for the computers lent by Silicon Graphics and Apple.[43] While Crichton's book features Toyota cars in Jurassic Park, Spielberg made a deal with the Ford Motor Company, who provided seven Ford Explorers.[44][45] The Explorers were modified by ILM's crew and veteran customizer George Barris to create the illusion they were autonomous cars by hiding the driver in the car's trunk.[46] Barris also customized the Jeep Wranglers featured in the production.[47]

Over fifteen percent of the film was shot in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic, both at the Amber Museum and Mount Isabela de Torres. The crew moved to Warner Bros. Studios' Stage 16 to shoot the T. rex's attack on the LSX powered SUVs.[43] Shooting proved frustrating because when water soaked the foam rubber skin of the animatronic dinosaur, it caused the T. rex to shake and quiver from the extra weight when the foam absorbed it. This forced Stan Winston's crew to dry the model with shammys between takes.[48] On the set, Malcolm distracting the dinosaur with a flare was included at Jeff Goldblum's suggestion. He felt a heroic action was better than going by the script, where like Gennaro, Malcolm was scared and ran away.[16] The ripples in the glass of water caused by the T. rex's footsteps were inspired by Spielberg listening to Earth, Wind and Fire in his car, and the vibrations the bass rhythm caused. Lantieri was unsure how to create the shot until the night before filming when he put a glass of water on a guitar he was playing, which achieved the concentric circles in the water Spielberg wanted. The next morning, guitar strings were put inside the car and a man on the floor plucked them to achieve the effect.[49] Back at Universal, the crew filmed scenes with the Dilophosaurus on Stage 27. Finally, the shoot finished on Stage 12, with the climactic chases with the raptors in the Park's computer rooms and Visitor's Center.[50] Spielberg changed the climax to bring back the T. rex, abandoning the original ending where Grant uses a platform machine to maneuver a raptor into a fossil tyrannosaur's jaws.[51] The scene, which already included the juxtaposition of live dinosaurs in a museum filled with fossils, while also destroying the bones, now had an ending where the T. rex saved the protagonists, and afterwards made what Spielberg described as a "King Kong roar" while an ironic banner reading "When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth" flew.[16] The film wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule on November 30,[52] and within days, editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut ready, allowing Spielberg to go ahead with filming Schindler's List.[53]

Dinosaurs on screen

See also: List of cloned animals in Jurassic Park A life-sized Tyrannosaurus robotic model, with hydraulics where the dinosaur's feet would be, touches a car in a movie set. The life-sized animatronic Tyrannosaurus rex on the set. It is the largest sculpture ever made by Stan Winston Studio.[54]

Despite the title of the film's referencing the Jurassic period, Brachiosaurus and Dilophosaurus are the only dinosaurs featured that actually lived during that time; the other species featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period.[55] This is acknowledged in the film during a scene where Dr. Grant describes the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a young boy, saying: "Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period..."[56]

  • Alamosaurus appears as a skeleton in the Jurassic Park visitor center.[57]
  • Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur seen by the park's visitors. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food and standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches.[58] According to artist Andy Schoneberg, the chewing was done to make the animal seem docile, resembling a cow chewing its cud. The dinosaur's head and upper neck was the largest puppet without hydraulics built for the film.[59] Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder. Penguins were also recorded to be used in the noises of the dinosaurs.[58]
  • Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to ensure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors.[60] Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake.[12] The animatronic model, nicknamed "Spitter" by Stan Winston's team, was animated by the puppeteers sitting on a trench in the set floor, using a paintball mechanism to spit the mixture of methacyl and K-Y Jelly that served as venom.[61]
  • Gallimimus are featured in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus. The Gallimimus was the first dinosaur to be digitized, being featured in two ILM tests, first as a herd of skeletons and then fully skinned while pursued by the T. rex.[12] Its design was based on ostriches, and to emphasize the birdlike qualities, the animation focused mostly on the herd rather than individual animals.[62] As reference for the dinosaurs' run, the animators were filmed running at the ILM parking lot, with plastic pipes standing in as the tree that the Gallimimus jump over.[63] The footage inspired the incorporation of an animal falling as one of the artists did trying to make the jump.[17] Horse squeals became the Gallimimus's sounds.[64]
  • Parasaurolophus appear in the background during the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus.[65]
  • Triceratops has an extended cameo, depicted as sick with an unidentified disease. Its appearance was a logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected.[66] The model, operated by eight puppeteers in the Kaua'i set, wound up being the first dinosaur filmed during production.[6] Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride on, a scene ultimately cut from the film for pacing reasons.[67] Gary Rydstrom combined the sound of himself breathing into a cardboard tube with the cows near his workplace at Skywalker Ranch to create the Triceratops vocals.[64]
  • Tyrannosaurus was acknowledged by Spielberg as "the star of the movie", and he rewrote the ending to feature the T. rex for fear of disappointing the audience.[12] Winston's animatronic T. rex stood 6.1 metres (20ft), weighed 17,500 pounds (7,900kg),[43] and was 12 metres (40ft) long.[68] Jack Horner called it "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur".[68] While the consulting paleontologists did not agree on the dinosaur's movement, particularly its running capabilities, animator Steve Williams decided to "throw physics out the window and create a T. rex that moved at sixty miles per hour even though its hollow bones would have busted if it ran that fast".[69] The major reason was the T. rex chasing a Jeep, a scene that took two months to finish.[58] The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement, though later studies indicated the T. rex had binocular vision comparable to a bird of prey.[70] Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale's blow.[58] A dog attacking a rope toy was used for the sounds of the T. rex tearing a Gallimimus apart,[12] while cut sequoias crashing to the ground became the sound of the dinosaur's footsteps.[16]
  • Velociraptor plays a major role in the film. The creature's depiction is ultimately not based on the actual dinosaur genus in question, which was also significantly smaller. Shortly before Jurassic Park's theatrical release,[71] the similar Utahraptor was discovered, although it proved to be even bigger in appearance than the film's raptors. This prompted Stan Winston to joke, "We made it, then they discovered it."[68] For the attack on character Robert Muldoon and some parts of the kitchen scene, the raptors were played by men in suits.[50] Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing,[12] an African crane's mating call, tortoises mating, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds.[58][64] Following discoveries made after the film's release, most paleontologists theorize that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus were fully covered with feathers like modern birds. This feature is included only in Jurassic Park III for the male raptors, who are shown with a row of small quills on their heads.[72]


"Dinosaur Input Device" raptor used for the film.

Special effects work continued on the film, with Tippett's unit adjusting to new technology with Dinosaur Input Devices:[73] models which fed information into computers to allow them to animate the characters like stop motion puppets. In addition, they acted out scenes with the raptors and Gallimimus. As well as the computer-generated dinosaurs, ILM also created elements such as water splashing and digital face replacement for Ariana Richards' stunt double.[12] Compositing the dinosaurs onto the live action scenes took around an hour. Rendering the dinosaurs often took two to four hours per frame, and rendering the T. rex in the rain took six hours per frame.[74] Spielberg monitored their progress from Poland during the filming of Schindler's List,[75] and had teleconferences four times a week with ILM's crew. The director described working simultaneously in two vastly different productions as "a bipolar experience", where he used "every ounce of intuition on Schindler's List and every ounce of craft on Jurassic Park".[63]

Along with the digital effects, Spielberg wanted the film to be the first with digital sound. He funded the creation of DTS (digital theater system), which allows audiences to "really hear the movie the way it was intended to be heard".[63] The sound effects crew, supervised by George Lucas,[76] were finished by the end of April.[58] Sound designer Gary Rydstrom considered it a fun process, given the film had all kinds of noiseanimal sounds, rain, gunshots, car crashesand at times no music. During the process, Spielberg would take the weekends to fly from Poland to Paris, where he would meet Rydstrom to see the sound progress.[63] Jurassic Park was finally completed on May 28, 1993.[58]


Main article: Jurassic Park (film score)

Composer John Williams began scoring the film at the end of February, and it was recorded a month later. John Neufeld and Alexander Courage provided the score's orchestrations.[58] Like Close Encounters of the Third Kind another Spielberg film he scored, Williams felt he needed to write "pieces that would convey a sense of 'awe' and fascination" given it dealt with the "overwhelming happiness and excitement" that would emerge from seeing live dinosaurs. In turn more suspenseful scenes such as the Tyrannosaurus attack required frightening themes.[77] The first soundtrack album was released on May 25, 1993.[78] For the 20th anniversary of the film's release, a new soundtrack was issued for digital download on April 9, 2013, including four bonus tracks personally selected by Williams.[79]


Universal took the lengthy pre-production period to carefully plan the Jurassic Park marketing campaign.[44] It cost $65 million and included deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products.[80] These included: three Jurassic Park video games by Sega and Ocean Software;[81] a toy line by Kenner distributed by Hasbro;[82] McDonald's "Dino-Sized meals";[44] and a novelization for young children.[83]

The film's trailers provided only a fleeting glimpse of the dinosaurs,[84] a tactic journalist Josh Horowitz described as "that old Spielberg axiom of never revealing too much" after Spielberg and director Michael Bay did the same for their production of Transformers in 2007.[85] The film was marketed with the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making". This was a joke Spielberg made on set about the genuine, thousands of years old mosquito in amber used for Hammond's walking stick.[86]

The film premiered at the Uptown Theater (Washington, D.C.) on June 9, 1993,[87][88] in support of two children's charities.[89] Two days later it opened nationwide in 2,404 theater locations and an estimated 3,400 screens internationally.[90][91] Following the film's release, a traveling exhibition called "The Dinosaurs of Jurassic Park" began, showcasing dinosaur skeletons and film props.[92]

Jurassic Park was broadcast on television for the first time on May 7, 1995, following the April 26 airing of The Making of Jurassic Park.[93] Some 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a 36 percent share of all available viewers that night. Jurassic Park was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast on television by any network since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places.[94] In JuneJuly 1995 the film was aired a number of times on the Turner Network Television (TNT) network.[94]

Theatrical re-releases

In anticipation of the Blu-ray release, Jurassic Park had a digital print released in UK cinemas on September 23, 2011.[95] It wound up grossing ?245,422 ($786,021) from 276 theaters, finishing at eleventh on the weekend box office list.[96]

Two years later, on the 20th anniversary of Jurassic Park, a 3D version of the film was released in cinemas.[97] Spielberg declared that he had produced the film with a sort of "subconscious 3D", as scenes feature animals walking toward the cameras and some effects of foreground and background overlay.[98] In 2011, he stated in an interview that Jurassic Park was the only one of his works he had considered for a conversion.[99] Once he saw the 3D version of Titanic in 2012, he liked the new look of the film so much that he hired the same retrofitting company, Stereo D. Spielberg and cinematographer Janusz Kaminski closely supervised the nine-month process in-between the production of Lincoln.[98][100] Stereo D executive Aaron Parry said the conversion was an evolution of what the company had done with Titanic, "being able to capitalize on everything we learned with Jim on Titanic and take it into a different genre and movie, and one with so many technical achievements." The studio had the help of ILM, which contributed some elements and updated effects shots for a better visual enhancement.[101] It opened in the United States and seven other territories on April 5, 2013,[102] with other countries receiving the re-release over the following six months.[103] In 2018, the film was re-released in select theaters to celebrate its 25th anniversary.[104]

Home media

The film made its VHS and LaserDisc debut on October 4, 1994.[105] With 17 million units sold in both formats,[106] Jurassic Park is the fifth best-selling VHS tape ever.[107]

Jurassic Park was first released on a Collector's Edition DVD on October 10, 2000, in both widescreen and full screen versions, and as part of a box set with the sequel The Lost World: Jurassic Park and both movies' soundtrack albums.[108][109] It was the 13th best-selling DVD of 2000 counting both versions, finishing the year with 910,000 units sold.[110] Following the release of Jurassic Park III, a new box set with all the films called Jurassic Park Trilogy was released on December 11, 2001; it was re-released on VHS and DVD as part of its 15th anniversary on October 8, 2004.[111] It was repackaged as Jurassic Park Adventure Pack on November 29, 2005.[112]

The trilogy was released on Blu-ray on October 25, 2011,[113] debuting at number five on the Blu-ray charts,[114] and nominated as the best release of the year by both the Las Vegas Film Critics Society[115] and the Saturn Awards.[116] In 2012, Jurassic Park was among twenty-five films chosen by Universal for a box set celebrating the studio's 100th anniversary,[117] while also receiving a standalone 100th anniversary Blu-ray featuring an augmented reality cover.[118] The following year, the 20th anniversary 3D conversion was issued on Blu-ray 3D.[119]

On June 1, 2016, Jurassic Park, along with its sequels The Lost World and Jurassic Park III, were added to the Netflix streaming service.[120][121]

The film, alongside The Lost World, Jurassic Park III and Jurassic World, was released as part of a 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray box set on May 22, 2018, in honor of the original film's 25th anniversary.[122]


Box office

Jurassic Park became the highest-grossing film released worldwide up to that time.[123] Following $3.1 million from midnight screenings on June 10, the film earned $47 million in its first weekend, with the $50.1 million total breaking the opening weekend record set by Batman Returns the year before.[90] By the end of its first week, Jurassic Park had grossed $81.7 million,[124] and remained at number one for three weeks. It eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada.[125] Box Office Mojo estimates the film sold over 86.2 million tickets in the US in its initial theatrical run.[126] The film also did very well in international markets, breaking opening records in the United Kingdom, Japan, India, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan,[127] and becoming the first film to gross $500 million overseas,[128] ultimately earning $914 million worldwide,[2] with Spielberg reportedly making over $250 million from the film.[129] It surpassed Spielberg's own E.T. the Extraterrestrial as the highest-grossing film ever, and became second behind E.T. in the United States and Canada.[130] Jurassic Park's record was surpassed in 1998 by Titanic, the first film to gross over $1billion.[131]

The 3D re-release of Jurassic Park opened at fourth place in North America, with $18.6 million from 2,771 locations. IMAX showings accounted for over $6 million, with the 32 percent being the highest IMAX share ever for a nationwide release.[132] The international release had its most successful weekend in the last week of August, when it managed to climb to the top of the overseas box office with a $28.8 million debut in China.[133] The reissue earned $45,385,935 in North America and $44,500,000 internationally as of August2013,[134] leading to a lifetime gross of $402,453,882 in North America and $628,723,171 overseas, for a worldwide gross of $1,029,939,903, making Jurassic Park the 17th film to surpass the $1billion mark.[135] It was the only Universal Pictures film to surpass the $1billion mark until 2015, when the studio had three such films, Furious 7, Minions, and the fourth installment of the Jurassic Park franchise, Jurassic World.[136] The film earned an additional $374,238 in 2018 for its 25th anniversary re-release.[137] It currently ranks as the 29th highest-grossing film of all time in North America (not adjusted for inflation), the highest-grossing film of 1993 and the twenty-eighth highest-grossing film of all time.[2]

Critical response

Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes retrospectively gave the film a "Certified Fresh" rating of 91%, based on 124 reviews, with a rating average score of 8.29/10. The site's critical consensus states, "Jurassic Park is a spectacle of special effects and life-like animatronics, with some of Spielberg's best sequences of sustained awe and sheer terror since Jaws."[138] Metacritic gave the film a weighted average score of 68 out of 100, based on reviews from 20 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[139] Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film a grade A on scale of A to F.[140]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear-inspiring sights never before seen on the screen [...] On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielberg's talents [but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away."[141] In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainmentthe eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen."[142] Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, saying, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values."[143] Henry Sheehan argued, "The complaints over Jurassic Park's lack of story and character sound a little off the point," pointing out the story arc of Grant learning to protect Hammond's grandchildren despite his initial dislike of them.[25] Empire magazine gave the film five stars, hailing it as "quite simply one of the greatest blockbusters of all time."[144]


In March 1994, Jurassic Park won all three Academy Awards for which it was nominated: Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Visual Effects (at the same ceremony, Spielberg, editor Michael Kahn, and composer John Williams won Academy Awards for Schindler's List). The film won honors outside the U.S. including the 1994 BAFTA for Best Special Effects, as well as the Award for the Public's Favorite Film.[145] It won the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation,[146] and the 1993 Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing for Crichton and Koepp and Best Special Effects.[147] The film won the 1993 People's Choice Awards for Favorite All-Around Motion Picture.[148] Young Artist Awards were given to Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello, with the film winning an Outstanding Action/Adventure Family Motion Picture award.[149] In 2001, the American Film Institute ranked Jurassic Park as the 35th most thrilling film of American cinema.[150] The film is included in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die,[151] film lists by Empire magazine,[152] and The Guardian.[153]

Year Award Category Nominees Result 1993 Bambi Awards[154] International Film Jurassic Park Won 1994 66th Academy Awards[155] Best Sound Editing Gary Rydstrom and Richard Hymns Won Best Sound Mixing Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins Won Best Visual Effects Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri Won Saturn Awards[147] Best Director Steven Spielberg Won Best Science Fiction Film Jurassic Park Won Best Special Effects Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri Won Best Writing Michael Crichton and David Koepp Won Best Actress Laura Dern Nominated Best Costumes Nominated Best Music John Williams Nominated Best Performance by a Young Actor Joseph Mazzello Nominated Best Performance by a Young Actor Ariana Richards Nominated Best Supporting Actor Jeff Goldblum Nominated Best Supporting Actor Wayne Knight Nominated Awards of the Japanese Academy[156] Best Foreign Film Jurassic Park Won BAFTA Awards[157] Best Special Effects Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri Won Best Sound Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins Nominated BMI Film Music Award[158] BMI Film Music Award John Williams Won Blue Ribbon Awards[159] Best Foreign Language Film Steven Spielberg Won Bram Stoker Award[160] Screenplay Michael Crichton and David Koepp Nominated Cinema Audio Society[161] Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Feature Film Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins Nominated Czech Lions[162] Best Foreign Language Film Steven Spielberg Won Grammy Awards[163] Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television John Williams Nominated MTV Movie Awards[164] Best Action Sequence Nominated Best Movie Jurassic Park Nominated Best Villain T. rex Nominated Mainichi Film Concours[165] Best Foreign Language Film (Fan Choice) Steven Spielberg Won Motion Picture Sound Editors[166] Best Sound Editing Won People's Choice Awards[167] Favorite Motion Picture Jurassic Park Won Young Artist Awards[168] Best Youth Actor Co-Starring in a Motion Picture Drama Joseph Mazzello Won Best Youth Actress Leading Role in a Motion Picture Drama Ariana Richards Won Outstanding Family Motion Picture Action/Adventure Jurassic Park Won Hugo Awards[169] Best Dramatic Presentation Jurassic Park Won


The gateway to a facility reading "Jurassic Park" at the top, "Discovery Center" at the bottom, and a rocky panel with a Tyrannosaurus skeleton in-between. Jurassic Park Discovery Center at Islands of Adventure.

Since its release, Jurassic Park has frequently been cited by film critics and industry professionals as one of the greatest movies of the action and thriller genres. The movie is also an example of a Technothriller.[170] The American Film Institute named Jurassic Park the 35th-most thrilling film of all time on June 13, 2001.[171] On Empire magazine's 15th anniversary in 2004, it judged Jurassic Park the sixth-most influential film in the magazine's lifetime.[172] Empire called the first encounter with a Brachiosaurus the 28th-most magical moment in cinema.[173] In 2008, an Empire poll of readers, filmmakers, and critics also rated it one of the 500 greatest films of all time.[174] On Film Review's 55th anniversary in 2005, it declared the film to be one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime.[175] In 2006, IGN ranked Jurassic Park as the 19th-greatest film franchise ever.[176] In a 2010 poll, the readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the greatest summer movie of the previous 20 years.[177] The popularity of the movie led the management of the National Basketball Association expansion franchise founded in Toronto in 1995 to adopt the nickname Raptors.[178] In addition, during the team's playoff games, fans watch the game on a large television in a fan area outside the arena, which has been nicknamed Jurassic Park. [179] The film is seen as giving rise to the "Jurassic Park" generation, to young people inspired to become paleontologists and to a surge in discoveries about dinosaurs in real life.[180]

Jurassic Park's biggest impact on subsequent films was a result of its computer-generated visual effects. Film historian Tom Shone commented on the film's innovation and influence, saying that, "In its way, Jurassic Park heralded a revolution in movies as profound as the coming of sound in 1927."[181] Many filmmakers saw Jurassic Park's effects as a realization that many of their visions, previously thought unfeasible or too expensive, were now possible.[172] ILM owner George Lucas, realizing the success of creating realistic live dinosaurs by his own company, started to make the Star Wars prequels;[182] Stanley Kubrick decided to invest in pet project A.I. Artificial Intelligence, to which he would later bring Spielberg to direct;[172] and Peter Jackson began to re-explore his childhood love of fantasy films, a path that led him to The Lord of the Rings and King Kong.[183] Jurassic Park has also inspired films and documentaries with dinosaurs such as the American adaptation of Godzilla, Dinosaur from the Deep, Carnosaur (in which Laura Dern's mother Diane Ladd starred), Dinosaur Island and Walking with Dinosaurs.[172] Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by the film, joined with IBM and director James Cameron to form a new special effects company, Digital Domain.[184]

Sequels and merchandise

Further information: Jurassic Park

After the enormous success of the film, Spielberg asked Crichton to write a sequel novel, leading to the 1995 book The Lost World.[185] This, in turn, was adapted as the film The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Released in May 1997, it was directed by Spielberg and written by David Koepp.[186] Another film, Jurassic Park III, was released in July 2001, under the direction of Joe Johnston, with Spielberg as executive producer. It featured an original script that incorporated unused elements from Crichton's original Jurassic Park.[187] A fourth installment, Jurassic World, was released in theaters in June 2015. Spielberg again produced, with Colin Trevorrow directing a script he wrote with Derek Connolly.[188] Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the fifth film in the franchise, was released in June 2018, with Spielberg as producer once more and J. A. Bayona as director.[189] A sixth film, Jurassic World: Dominion, will be directed by Trevorrow and is scheduled for release in June 2021.[190]

The story of the film was continued in auxiliary media, at times even unattached to the film sequels themselves. These included a series of Jurassic Park comic books written by Steve Englehart for Topps Comics,[191] and video games such as Ocean Software's Jurassic Park 2: The Chaos Continues (1994), Vivendi's Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis (2003) and Telltale Games' Jurassic Park: The Game (2011).[81]

All of the Universal Parks & Resorts include a Jurassic Park-themed ride. The first was Jurassic Park: The Ride at Universal Studios Hollywood on June 15, 1996, built after six years of development at a cost of $110 million.[192] This attraction was replicated by Universal Studios Japan in 2001.[193] Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida, has an entire section of the park dedicated to Jurassic Park that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure", and many smaller rides and attractions based on the series.[194][195] At Universal Studios Singapore, opened in 2010, the Themed Zone named "The Lost World" consists mostly of Jurassic Park rides, such as the roller coaster Canopy Flyer and the river rapids Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure.[196]


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Retrieved January 5, 2014. ^ Chitwood, Adam (February 29, 2012). "Universal Announces Fantastic 25-Film 100th Anniversary Blu-ray Collection". Collider. Retrieved January 5, 2014. ^ "Universal Pictures partner with Aurasma to celebrate 100th Anniversary: Watch the movies come to life in a brand new way" (Press release). Aurasma. November 20, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2014. ^ Lawler, Richard (January 27, 2013). "Jurassic Park 3D Blu-ray comes home April 23rd after its one-week theatrical return". Engadget. Retrieved January 6, 2014. ^ McFarland, K. (June 1, 2016). "8 New Things You Gotta Watch on Netflix This Month". Wired. Retrieved March 8, 2017. ^ Cobb, Kayla (June 1, 2016). "Here's Everything New on Netflix June 2016: 'Jurassic Park', 'Orange is the New Black', 'Pretty Little Liars', and More". Retrieved June 3, 2016. ^ Jurassic Park Collection 4K Blu-ray, retrieved March 18, 2018 ^ Kilday, Gregg (January 21, 1994). "Hollywood Scores Big". Entertainment Weekly. 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"Global Box Office: 'Jurassic Park 3D' Clobbers the Competition, Huge in China". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 26, 2013. ^ "Jurassic Park 3D". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 6, 2013. ^ White, James (August 23, 2013). "Jurassic Park Joins The Billion Dollar Club". Empire. Retrieved August 26, 2013. ^ Han, Angie (June 23, 2015). "'Jurassic World' Sets Record for Fastest Race to $1 Billion". /Film. Retrieved February 6, 2016. ^ "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 23, 2019. ^ "Jurassic Park (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved December 4, 2018. ^ "Jurassic Park Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 8, 2013. ^ "Cinemascore". CinemaScore. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2019. ^ Maslin, Janet (June 11, 1993). "Screen Stars With Teeth To Spare". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2007. ^ Travers, Peter (June 1993). "Jurassic Park". Rolling Stone. 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Quintessence Editions (5th ed.). Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. p.960. ISBN978-1844037339. OCLC796279948. ^ Simon Braund, Glen Ferris, Ian Freer, Nev Pierce, Chris Hewitt, Dan Jolin, Ian Nathan, Kim Newman, Helen O'Hara, Olly Richards, and Owen Willams. "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2010.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) ^ "1000 films to see before you die". June 27, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2010. ^ "BURDA Publications, Inc. Congratulates its 1993 Bambi Award Recipients" (Press release). Hubert Burda Media. December 9, 1993. ^ "The 66th Academy Awards (1994) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved October 22, 2011. ^ "17th Annual Japanese Academy Awards" (in Japanese). Japan Academy Prize Association. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ "1993 BAFTA Awards and Nominations". bafta.org. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ Borzillo, Carrie (May 28, 1994). "BMI Gives Awards to Television, Movie Music". Billboard. Retrieved February 18, 2016. ^ ?????????? ????????????3? (in Japanese). The Association of Tokyo Film Journalists. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ "Past Bram Stoker Nominees & Winners". horror.org. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ "The Cinema Audio Society Awards For Outstanding Achievement In Sound Mixing 19932002". Cinema Audio Society. Archived from the original on June 8, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ "Cesky lev 1993 Prehled oceneni" (in Czech). Czech Film and Television Academy. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ Moon, Tom (January 7, 1994). "Sting, R.e.m., Houston Grab Grammy Bids Nominations Predictably Conservative; Mariah Carey, Michael Bolton Blocked From Big Awards". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ "1994 MTV Movie Awards". MTV. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ "48th ??????". Mainichi Shinbun (in Japanese). Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ Cox, Dan (March 20, 1994). "Spielberg pix sound great at MPSE's Golden Reels". Variety. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ "People's Choice Awards 1994 Nominees". People's Choice Awards. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ "15th Annual Young Artist Awards". youngartistawards.org. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ "The Hugo Awards: 1994 Hugo Awards". thehugoawards.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012. ^ Column, Guest (July 19, 2018). "Crypto, Sci-Fi, Soldiers, Spies (and Disasters, of Course): 5 Varieties in the Technothriller Genre". Writer's Digest. Retrieved February 9, 2020. ^ "AFI's 100 Years, 100 Thrills". AFI. June 13, 2001. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2007. ^ a b c d Freer, Ian (April 30, 2004). "The 15 Most Influential Films Of Our Lifetime". Empire. p.120. ^ "50 Most Magical Movie Moments". Empire. November 28, 2003. p.122. ^ Braund, Simon; Glen Ferris, Ian Freer, Nev Pierce, Chris Hewitt, Dan Jolin, Ian Nathan, Kim Newman, Helen O'Hara, Olly Richards, and Owen Willams. "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Retrieved January 7, 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Film Review Special #59 55 Years Anniversary contents". Film Review. July 28, 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2007. ^ Stax; Linder, Brian; Gilchrist, Todd; Moro, Eric; Carle, Chris (November 30, 2006). "Top 25 Movie Franchises of All Time: #19". IGN. Retrieved March 8, 2007. ^ "Summer Blockbusters: The New Generation", Entertainment Weekly, Page 32, Issue #1112, July 23, 2010. ^ "Laying the Groundwork for the NBA in Toronto". Toronto Raptors. Retrieved April 17, 2013. ^ "Welcome to Jurassic Park, where hope springs eternal for Toronto sports fans". CBC. May 19, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019. ^ Many Paleontologists Today Are Part Of The 'Jurassic Park' Generation. NPR. July 10, 2018. 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TheWrap. Retrieved February 26, 2020. ^ "Jurassic Park". stevenenglehart.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007. ^ "Jurassic Park: The Ride (1996present)". The Studio Tour. Retrieved March 13, 2007. ^ "Jurassic Park: The Ride". Universal Studios Japan. Retrieved January 7, 2014. ^ "Challenging Disney". Ocala Star-Banner. April 4, 1999. Retrieved April 14, 2011. ^ Schneider, Mike (July 5, 1998). "Theme Parks Set in Motion Around Conference Tables". Lakeland Ledger. Retrieved April 13, 2011. ^ "The Lost World Universal Studios Singapore". Resorts World Sentosa. Retrieved January 6, 2014. Bibliography .mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg. Faber and Faber. ISBN0-571-19177-0.
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  • Shone, Tom (2004). Blockbuster: How Hollywood learned to stop worrying and love the summer. Simon and Schuster. ISBN978-0-7432-3568-6.

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Jake Gyllenhaal
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Jake GyllenhaalJake Gyllenhaal 2019 by Glenn Francis.jpgGyllenhaal at the premiere of Spider-Man: Far From Home in 2019BornJacob Benjamin Gyllenhaal
December 19, 1980
Los Angeles, California, U.S.EducationHarvard-Westlake SchoolAlmamaterColumbia UniversityOccupation
  • Actor
  • film producer
Yearsactive1991presentWorksPerformancesParent(s)Stephen Gyllenhaal
Naomi FonerRelativesMaggie Gyllenhaal (sister)FamilyGyllenhaalAwardsFull listSignatureJake Gyllenhaal's Signature.svg

Jacob Benjamin Gyllenhaal (common: /?d??l?nh??l/,[1] correct: [?j??l??n?h??l];[2] born December 19, 1980) is an American actor and film producer. Born into the Gyllenhaal family, he is the son of director Stephen Gyllenhaal and screenwriter Naomi Foner. He began acting as a child, making his acting debut in City Slickers (1991), followed by roles in his father's films A Dangerous Woman (1993) and Homegrown (1998). His breakthrough performances were as Homer Hickam in October Sky (1999) and as a psychologically troubled teenager in Donnie Darko (2001). His most widely seen film to that point came with the disaster film The Day After Tomorrow (2004).

Gyllenhaal won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for playing Jack Twist in Ang Lee's romance Brokeback Mountain (2005). His career progressed with starring roles in the thriller Zodiac (2007), the romantic comedy Love & Other Drugs (2010), and the science fiction film Source Code (2011). He continued to gain acclaim for Denis Villeneuve's thrillers Prisoners (2013) and Enemy (2013), and he received nominations for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his roles as a manipulative journalist in Nightcrawler (2014) and a troubled writer in Nocturnal Animals (2016). His highest-grossing release came with the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero film Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019), in which he portrayed Mysterio.

Gyllenhaal's stage roles include a Broadway production of Nick Payne's drama Constellations in 2014. In addition to acting, he is vocal about political and social issues.

Early life

Coat of arms of the noble house Gyllenhaal

Jacob Benjamin Gyllenhaal was born on December 19, 1980 in Los Angeles, California, the son of film producer and screenwriter Naomi Foner (nee Achs) and film director Stephen Gyllenhaal.[3][4] Actress Maggie Gyllenhaal, his older sister, appeared with him in the film Donnie Darko. Gyllenhaal's father, who was raised as a Swedenborgian, is of Swedish and English descent and is a descendant of the Swedish noble Gyllenhaal family.[5] Jake's last ancestor to be born in Sweden was his great-great-grandfather, Anders Leonard Gyllenhaal.[6][7] Jake's mother is Jewish[8][9][10][11] and was born in New York City to a Jewish family from Russia and Poland.[12][13] Gyllenhaal has said that he considers himself Jewish.[14][15] On his 13th birthday, Gyllenhaal performed a "barmitzvah-like act, without the typical trappings", volunteering at a homeless shelter because his parents wanted to give him a sense of gratitude for his privileged lifestyle.[16][17] His parents insisted that he have summer jobs to support himself, and he thus worked as a lifeguard and as a busboy at a restaurant operated by a family friend.[18] Gyllenhaal said his parents encouraged artistic expression: "I do have parents who constantly supported me in certain ways. In other ways, they were lacking. Definitely, it's in expression and creativity where my family has always been best at."[19]

Acting career

Early career

As a child, Gyllenhaal was regularly exposed to filmmaking due to his family's deep ties to the industry. He made his acting debut as Billy Crystal's son in the 1991 comedy film City Slickers. His parents did not allow him to appear in the 1992 film The Mighty Ducks because it would have required him to leave home for two months.[4] In subsequent years, his parents allowed him to audition for roles but regularly forbade him to take them if he were chosen.[18] He was allowed to appear in his father's films several times. Gyllenhaal appeared in the 1993 film A Dangerous Woman (along with sister Maggie); in "Bop Gun", a 1994 episode of Homicide: Life on the Street; and in the 1998 comedy Homegrown. Along with their mother, Jake and Maggie appeared in two episodes of Molto Mario, an Italian cooking show on the Food Network. Prior to his senior year in high school, the only other film not directed by his father, in which Gyllenhaal was allowed to perform, was the 1993 film Josh and S.A.M., a little-known children's adventure.[20]

Gyllenhaal graduated from the Harvard-Westlake School in Los Angeles in 1998, then attended Columbia University, where his sister was a senior and from which his mother had graduated, to study Eastern religions and philosophy. Gyllenhaal dropped out after two years to concentrate on acting but has expressed intentions to eventually finish his degree.[4] Gyllenhaal's first lead role was in October Sky, Joe Johnston's 1999 adaptation of the Homer Hickam autobiography Rocket Boys, in which he portrayed a young man from West Virginia striving to win a science scholarship to avoid becoming a coal miner. The film earned $32million and was described in the Sacramento News and Review as Gyllenhaal's "breakout performance".[20][21]

20012004: From Donnie Darko to the London stage

Donnie Darko, Gyllenhaal's second film, was not a box office success upon its initial 2001 release but eventually became a cult favorite.[22] Directed by Richard Kelly, the film is set in 1988 and stars Gyllenhaal as a troubled teenager who experiences visions of a 6-foot (1.8m) tall rabbit named Frank who tells him that the world is coming to an end. Gyllenhaal's performance was well received by critics; Gary Mairs of Culture Vulture wrote that "Gyllenhaal manages the difficult trick of seeming both blandly normal and profoundly disturbed, often within the same scene."[23][24]

After the critical success of Donnie Darko, Gyllenhaal's next role was as Pilot Kelston in 2002's Highway alongside Jared Leto. His performance was described by one critic as "silly, cliched and straight to video".[25] Gyllenhaal had more success starring opposite Jennifer Aniston in The Good Girl, which premiered at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival; he also starred in Lovely and Amazing with Catherine Keener.[26] In both films he plays an unstable character who begins a reckless affair with an older woman. Gyllenhaal later described these as "teenager in transition" roles.[27] Gyllenhaal later starred in the Touchstone Pictures romantic comedy Bubble Boy, which was loosely based on the story of David Vetter. The film portrays the title character's adventures as he pursues the love of his life before she marries the wrong man.[28] The film was panned by critics, with one calling it an "empty-headed, chaotic, utterly tasteless atrocity".[29]

Following Bubble Boy, Gyllenhaal starred opposite Dustin Hoffman, Susan Sarandon and Ellen Pompeo in Moonlight Mile, as a young man coping with the death of his fiancee and the grief of her parents. The story, which received mixed reviews,[30] is loosely based on writer/director Brad Silberling's personal experiences following the murder of his girlfriend, Rebecca Schaeffer.[31]

Gyllenhaal was almost cast as Spider-Man for 2004's Spider-Man 2, due to director Sam Raimi's concerns about original Spider-Man star Tobey Maguire's health.[32] Maguire recovered, however, and the sequel was shot without Gyllenhaal.[33] (The actorswho later played brothers in Brothersresemble each other enough that Gyllenhaal has jokingly complained about cab drivers often calling him "Spider-Man.")[34] Instead, Gyllenhaal starred in the blockbuster The Day After Tomorrow in 2004, co-starring Dennis Quaid as his father.[4][35]

In his theatrical debut, Gyllenhaal starred on the London stage in Kenneth Lonergan's revival of This Is Our Youth at the Garrick Theatre in 2002.[36] Gyllenhaal said, "Every actor I look up to has done theatre work, so I knew I had to give it a try."[37] The play, which had been a critical sensation on Broadway, ran for eight weeks in London's West End. Gyllenhaal received favorable critical reviews and an Evening Standard Theatre Award in the category "Outstanding Newcomer".[38][39]

200511: Brokeback Mountain and other roles

Gyllenhaal attending the premiere of Proof in 2005

In 2005, Gyllenhaal starred in the critically praised films Proof, Jarhead, and Brokeback Mountain. In Proof, featuring Gwyneth Paltrow and Anthony Hopkins, Gyllenhaal played a graduate student in mathematics who tries to convince Paltrow's character to publish a revolutionary proof to a problem puzzling the mathematicians' community. In Jarhead, Gyllenhaal played a violent U.S. Marine during the first Gulf War. He also auditioned to be Batman for the blockbuster Batman Begins[40] and came close to getting the role,[41] but Christian Bale was ultimately chosen for it.

In Brokeback Mountain, Gyllenhaal[42] and Heath Ledger play young men who meet as sheep herders and embark upon a sexual relationship that begins in the summer of 1963 and lasts for 20 years. The film was often referred to in the media with the shorthand phrase "the gay cowboy movie",[43] though there was differing opinion on the sexual orientation of the characters. The film won the Golden Lion prize at the Venice Film Festival. The film went on to win four Golden Globe Awards, four British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) Awards, and three Academy Awards. Gyllenhaal was nominated for an Academy Award in the category of Best Supporting Actor for his performance but lost to George Clooney for Syriana. Gyllenhaal also won the Best Supporting Actor BAFTA for the same role and received a Best Supporting Actor nomination and Best Film Ensemble nomination from the Screen Actors Guild. Also for Brokeback Mountain, he and Ledger won an MTV Movie Award for "Best Kiss" in 2006. Shortly after the 2006 Academy Awards, Gyllenhaal was invited to join the Academy in recognition of his acting career.[44]

Gyllenhaal expressed mixed feelings about the experience of being directed by Ang Lee in Brokeback Mountain but generally had more praise than criticism for Lee's directing style. While complaining of the way Lee tended to disconnect from his actors once filming began, Gyllenhaal praised his encouraging direction of the actors and sensitive approach to the material.[45][46] At the Directors Guild of America Awards on January 28, 2006, Gyllenhaal also praised Lee for "his humbleness and his respect for everyone around him".[47]

When asked about his kissing scenes with Heath Ledger in Brokeback Mountain, Gyllenhaal said, "As an actor, I think we need to embrace the times we feel most uncomfortable."[48] When asked about the more intimate scenes with Ledger, Gyllenhaal likened them to "doing a sex scene with a woman I'm not particularly attracted to".[42] Following the release of Brokeback Mountain, rumors circulated regarding the actor's sexual orientation. When asked about such gossip during an interview, Gyllenhaal said:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

You know it's flattering when there's a rumor that says I'm bisexual. It means I can play more kinds of roles. I'm open to whatever people want to call me. I've never really been attracted to men sexually, but I don't think I would be afraid of it if it happened.[49]

Gyllenhaal narrated the 2005 short animated film The Man Who Walked Between the Towers,[50] based on Mordicai Gerstein's book of the same name about Philippe Petit's famous stunt.[51] In January 2007, as host of Saturday Night Live, he put on a sparkly evening dress and sang "And I Am Telling You I'm Not Going" from the musical Dreamgirls for his opening monologue,[52] dedicating the song to his "unique fan base... the fans of Brokeback".[53]

In 2007, Gyllenhaal starred in David Fincher's mystery thriller Zodiac, which was based on a true story. He played Robert Graysmith, a San Francisco Chronicle political cartoonist.[54] In preparation for his role, Gyllenhaal met Graysmith, and videotaped him to study his mannerisms and behavior.[55] Gyllenhaal starred opposite Meryl Streep, Alan Arkin and Reese Witherspoon in the October 2007 release Rendition, a Gavin Hood-directed political thriller about the U.S. policy of extraordinary rendition.[56] In 2009, he appeared with Tobey Maguire in Jim Sheridan's remake of Susanne Bier's 2004 Danish language film Brothers.[57] In 2008, it was announced that Gyllenhaal would star in the comedy Nailed, which he filmed in South Carolina with Jessica Biel,[58] as well as Doug Liman's as yet untitled film about the race for lunar colonization.[59] The following year, Gyllenhaal played the lead role in the movie adaptation of the video game Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and released by Disney on May 28, 2010, and in the romantic comedy Love & Other Drugs, released on November 24, 2010, for which he received a Golden Globe Award nomination.


Gyllenhaal at the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival in 2012

In 2012, Gyllenhaal starred alongside Michael Pena in David Ayer's film End of Watch about two Los Angeles street cops.[60] The film was released on September 21, 2012 and received positive reviews, with Roger Ebert saying that "End of Watch is one of the best police movies in recent years, a virtuoso fusion of performances and often startling action",[61] and Salon.com's Andrew O'Hehir stating that the film was "at least the best cop movie since James Gray's We Own the Night, and very likely since Antoine Fuqua's memorable Training Day (which, not coincidentally, was written by Ayer)".[62] To train for the role, Gyllenhaal took tactical training and participated in actual police drives with co-star Michael Pena to help establish the language of the characters.[63]

Gyllenhaal appeared in two films directed by Denis Villeneuve in 2013 Gyllenhaal described meeting Villeneuve "as if I'd met an older brother".[64] The first of films to be released, the thriller Prisoners, starred Gyllenhaal as a detective named Loki in search of the abductor of two young girls, one of which is fathered by Hugh Jackman's character. Rolling Stone critic Peter Travers praised Gyllenhaal's "exceptional" performance in the film.[65] In their second collaboration, Gyllenhaal starred in a dual role as a history teacher and his doppelganger in the thriller Enemy.[66] In 2014, he produced and starred in the crime thriller Nightcrawler, receiving a Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild Award nomination for the latter role.[67] In 2015, he starred in Antoine Fuqua's sports drama Southpaw,[68] Baltasar Kormakur's Everest, an account of the 1996 Mount Everest disaster,[69] and Jean-Marc Vallee's romantic comedy-drama Demolition.[70] He was also on the jury for the main competition section of the 2015 Cannes Film Festival.[71][72] In 2016, he starred in Tom Ford's thriller film Nocturnal Animals.[73]

In 2017, Gyllenhaal starred in the science fiction thriller film Life, as astronaut David Jordan,[73] played a supporting role in the action-adventure film Okja,[73] and headlined the drama Stronger, about Boston Marathon bombing survivor Jeff Bauman.[73] In 2018, he starred in Paul Dano's drama Wildlife and the western The Sisters Brothers.[73] in 2019, he reunited with his Nightcrawler director Dan Gilroy in Velvet Buzzsaw.[74]

Gyllenhaal played comic book supervillain Mysterio/Quentin Beck in the sequel to Spider-Man: Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019), set within the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[75] It ranks as his highest-grossing release.[76]

On January 3, 2020, it was announced that he secured the rights to produce and star as Bruce Bechdel in a film version of the musical, Fun Home, which in turn is based on Alison Bechdel's graphic memoir of the same name.[77]

In the Summer of 2020, Gillenhaal is set to star as George Seurat in the play Sunday In The Park With George at the Savoy Theatre in London.[78]

New York stage

Gyllenhaal's Off-Broadway debut occurred in 2012 in Nick Payne's If There Is I Haven't Found It Yet at the Roundabout Theatre Company's Laura Pels Theatre.[79] Gyllenhaal debuted on Broadway in 2014 in Payne's Constellations at the Samuel J. Friedman Theatre opposite Ruth Wilson, also in her Broadway debut.[80]

Gyllenhaal joined John Mauceri and David Denby in Adam Gopnik's podium discussion in February 2016 at the David Rubenstein Atrium at Lincoln Center about Leonard Bernstein's breakthrough conducting performance in Carnegie Hall on November 14, 1943; accompanied by Jeanine Tesori on piano, he sang "Maria" from West Side Story.[81]

He appeared in four benefit concert performances of the Stephen Sondheim/James Lapine musical Sunday in the Park with George at the New York City Center on October 2426, 2016. Annaleigh Ashford performed "Dot" and Zachary Levi was "Jules".[82][83] Starting in February 2017, Gyllenhaal and Ashford reprised their City Center performances on Broadway at the reopened Hudson Theatre.[84]

He had been scheduled to appear in Lanford Wilson's Burn This on Broadway at the re-opened Hudson Theatre under the direction of Michael Mayer in 2017.[85] It was announced in October 2016 that the production has been postponed until the 201718 season, because of scheduling conflicts with Gyllenhaal.[86] However, in December 2017, a new production of Burn This was scheduled for 2019 with Adam Driver in the role of Pale. Gyllenhaal's production was reported to be "scuttled".[87]

He appears in Sea Wall / A Life, a double-bill of monologues, on Broadway at the Hudson Theatre, which opened on August 8, 2019. He performs in the section by Nick Payne, A Life, which concerns a man about to become a father. Sea Wall, by Simon Stephens, is performed by Tom Sturridge. Both pieces are directed by Carrie Cracknell.[88]

Personal life

Family and relationships

Further information: Gyllenhaal family

The son of director Stephen Gyllenhaal and screenwriter Naomi Foner, Gyllenhaal's immediate family includes his sister, actress Maggie, who is married to actor Peter Sarsgaard, Gyllenhaal's co-star in Jarhead and Rendition and his brother Luke from his father's second marriage. In December 2006, Gyllenhaal and his sister escaped a fire that destroyed Manka's Inverness Lodge, a famed lodge and restaurant in Inverness, California, at which they were vacationing. The Gyllenhaals were among a dozen or so guests who fled after the fire, sparked by a falling tree, broke out at about 3 a.m. Co-owner and celebrity chef Daniel DeLong said the pair were supportive despite having to brave the wind and cold. "Jake was helping me pull things out of the fire" DeLong said.[89]

Gyllenhaal's niece, Ramona Sarsgaard, was born on October 3, 2006. Gyllenhaal has both literal godparents and what he describes as "celebrity godparents". The late actor and director Paul Newman was his celebrity godfather,[90] and actress Jamie Lee Curtis is both his literal and celebrity godmother.[4][90] Other godparents of unknown status include a gay couple[91][92] and cinematographer Robert Elswit.[93][94] Gyllenhaal himself is the godfather of Matilda Rose Ledger (born October 28, 2005), daughter of Heath Ledger and Michelle Williams, both of whom co-starred with him in Brokeback Mountain.[95]

Gyllenhaal dated actress Kirsten Dunst for nearly two years, starting in 2002.[96] He later dated his Rendition co-star Reese Witherspoon from about 2007 to 2009.[97][98][99][100] He dated singer-songwriter Taylor Swift from October 2010 until March 2011,[101][102][103] and model Alyssa Miller from July to December 2013.[104][105] Gyllenhaal has been dating French model Jeanne Cadieu since mid-2018.[106][107]

Politics and other interests

Gyllenhaal once shot a commercial for Rock the Vote and, along with his sister, visited the University of Southern California to encourage students to vote during the 2004 U.S. election.[108] He also campaigned for Democratic Presidential candidate John Kerry.[109] He has said, however, that "it frustrates me when actors talk politics; I'm political and I make choices in my movies that I think are political. I try and say things with what I do. Rightly or wrongly, young actors have all the power."[4] In an interview for Rendition, he remarked that "it's a sad time when actors are politicians and politicians are actors".[110] For the 2018 midterm elections, Jake Gyllenhaal endorsed Beto O'Rourke in a contested senate race that Ted Cruz won. His endorsement came in the form of a Facebook post that included a picture of him in a "BETO" shirt and lengthy caption that also endorsed Stacey Abrams, Andrew Gillum, Kyrsten Sinema, and Jacky Rosen in their respective Senate or gubernatorial elections.[111]

In 2003, Gyllenhaal participated in an advertising campaign by the American Civil Liberties Union.[112][113] He recycles regularly, and said in an interview that he spends $400 a year to have trees planted in a Mozambique forest, partly to promote the Future Forests program.[114][115] After filming The Day After Tomorrow, he flew to the Arctic to promote awareness of climate change.[116][117] Gyllenhaal is the Honorary Chair of the New Eyes for the Needy Advisory Board,[118] and has signed on to help the TV fundraiser Stand Up to Cancer.[119] Gyllenhaal is on the board of directors for the Anti-Recidivism Coalition and volunteered in California juvenile detention centers with Scott Budnick.[120]

In his spare time, Gyllenhaal enjoys woodworking and cooking.[121] When asked about being a Buddhist, he has said, "I am not a card-carrying Buddhist, but I do try to practice mindfulness" and that it is his goal to meditate every day.[122][123]

Gyllenhaal at the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival in February 2012

On December 19, 2011, he was announced as a jury member for the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival that was held in February 2012.[124]

Media image

Gyllenhaal was named one of People magazine's "50 Most Beautiful People" in 2006.[125] He was also listed in People's "Hottest Bachelors of 2006".[126] Thousands of gay and bisexual men were polled for the 2007 and 2008 "AfterElton.com Hot 100 List". Gyllenhaal was ranked at No.1 in both consecutive years.[127] He was ranked at No.2 on the Gay Wired Magazine poll of male actors who have played gay characters in movies.[128] In April 2012, Shalom Life ranked him Number 6 on its list of "the 50 most talented, intelligent, funny, and gorgeous Jewish men in the world".[129]

Filmography and awards

Main articles: Jake Gyllenhaal filmography and List of awards and nominations received by Jake Gyllenhaal


^ "NLS Other Writings Say How". National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Retrieved October 1, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em} ^ Gyllenhaal, Jake (September 27, 2012). 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Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal on building character with language off Broadway and in End of Watch". HitFix.com. November 30, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Perez, Rodrigo (September 6, 2013). "Jake Gyllenhaal & Denis Villeneuve Push Each Other Into Haunting, Bold New Territory For 'Enemy'". IndieWire. Retrieved December 11, 2017. ^ Travers, Peter (September 19, 2013). "'Prisoners' Review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 11, 2017. ^ Armitage, Hugh (March 20, 2012). "Jake Gyllenhaal for dual 'An Enemy' roles". Digital Spy. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ Buckley, Cara; (Carpbetblogger) (December 16, 2014). "On the Scent of Jake Gyllenhaal". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Zeitchik, Steven (July 24, 2015). "For Southpaw director Antoine Fuqua, a different kind of bout". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Pulver, Andrew (September 2, 2015). "Everest: how Jake Gyllenhaal got to grips with the world's highest mountain". The Guardian. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Holden, Stephen (April 7, 2016). "Review: In Demolition, It's Hammer Time for Jake Gyllenhaal". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ "The Jury of the 68th Cannes Film Festival". Cannes Film Festival. April 21, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Gilman, Greg (April 21, 2015). "Jake Gyllenhaal, Sienna Miller and Guillermo del Toro Join Cannes Film Festival Jury". The Wrap. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ a b c d e McNary, Dave (May 26, 2016). "Jake Gyllenhaal's Nocturnal Animals Lands Awards Season Release Date". Variety. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (June 20, 2017). "Hot Package: 'Nightcrawler's Dan Gilroy, Jake Gyllenhaal, Rene Russo Reteam". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 12, 2018. ^ Kroll, Justin (May 21, 2018). "Jake Gyllenhaal Eyed for Villain Role in 'Spider-Man: Homecoming' Sequel". Variety. Retrieved May 21, 2018. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 9, 2019. ^ https://www.broadway.com/buzz/198003/jake-gyllenhaal-to-produce-star-in-movie-musical-adaptation-of-fun-home/ ^ "SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE - one of 2020's most coveted theatrical events". Lodon Box Office. Retrieved December 6, 2019. ^ Lemon, Brendan. "If There Is I Haven't Found It Yet". Financial Times. Laura Pels Theatre, New York. Retrieved September 25, 2012. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben. "Jake Gyllenhaal to make Broadway debut in Constellations". The Guardian. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ "Stage Tube: Jake Gyllenhaal & Jeanine Tesori Celebrate Leonard Bernstein with "Maria" from West Side Story". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Paulson, Michael (July 14, 2016). "Sunday in the Park with George, with Jake Gyllenhaal, Adds 2 Performances". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Gans, Andrew (October 21, 2016). "Creative Team Announced for Jake Gyllenhaal-Annaleigh Ashford Sunday in the Park". Playbill. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ Lloyd Webber, Imogen (December 13, 2016). "Jake Gyllenhaal & Annaleigh Ashford to Launch Broadway's Hudson Theatre With Sunday in the Park with George". Broadway.com. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Henry, Alan (July 19, 2016). "Breaking: Jake Gyllenhaal Will Return to Broadway in Burn This at The Hudson Theatre". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ "Broadway Revival of Lanford Wilson's 'Burn This' Postponed Until 201718 Season". Broadwayworld.com. October 21, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Cox, Gordon (December 14, 2017). "Adam Driver to Star in 'Burn This' on Broadway". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2018. ^ Meyer, Dan. "What Did Critics Think of Sea Wall/A Life on Broadway?" Playbill, August 9, 2019 ^ "Gyllenhaals forced to flee fire at lodge". The Hollywood Reporter. Associated Press. December 29, 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ a b Farndale, Nigel (October 21, 2007). "Jake Gyllenhaal: 'Aggression is a part of me'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Sumi, Glenn (December 15, 2005). "Jake Gyllenhaal". Now. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Applebaum, Stephen (January 27, 2006). "BAFTA winner Jake Gyllenhaal Love and war". Netribution. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 14, 2014. ^ Barnes, Henry (October 30, 2014). "Jake Gyllenhaal on Nightcrawler: 'I'm a bit strange, you know?'". The Guardian. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ Gyllenhaal, Jake (September 10, 2014). "Jake Gyllenhaal sees light in the darkness of Nightcrawler". Q (Interview). Interviewed by Jian Ghomeshi. Toronto. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal to help a devastated Michelle Williams". News.com.au. January 24, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Thomas, Karen (July 20, 2004). "Gyllenhaal, Dunst call it quits". USA Today. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ Thomson, Katherine (April 5, 2007). "Reese Witherspoon & Jake Gyllenhaal Get Close". People. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ "Reese Witherspoon On Kids, Jake, And Working With Vince Vaughn". Huffington Post. November 14, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008. ^ Wihlborg, Ulrica; Silverman, Stephen M. (November 29, 2009). "Reps Claim Jake and Reese Are Still Together". People. Retrieved February 29, 2020. ^ "Reese Leaves Jake; "It Broke His Heart"". Us Weekly. December 16, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Hammel, Sara (October 25, 2010). "Taylor Swift & Jake Gyllenhaal Share a 'Friendly' Brunch in Brooklyn". People. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Hammel, Sara (January 4, 2011). "Taylor Swift & Jake Gyllenhaal Break Up: Source". People. Retrieved February 29, 2020. ^ West, Kay (January 20, 2011). "Taylor Swift & Jake Gyllenhaal: Back Together Again?". People. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal Takes a Kiss-Filled Bike Ride with SI Model Alyssa Miller". People. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal & Girlfriend Alyssa Miller Enjoy a Day Out in New York". Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved February 29, 2020. ^ Leanne Aciz Stanton (December 21, 2018). "Jake Gyllenhaal Is Dating Model Jeanne Cadieu". Us Weekly. Retrieved January 12, 2020. ^ Umesh Kapoor (October 5, 2019). "Who Is Jeanne Cadieu? 5 Things To Know About Jake Gyllenhaal's Rumored Girlfriend". The Digital Weekly. Retrieved January 12, 2020. ^ Nichols, Kara (September 21, 2004). "Celebrities rally voters". The Daily Trojan. 153 (20). ^ Pelleymounter, Alison (October 28, 2004). "Star of Donnie Darko visits EC". The Spectator. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ "STV Player". Archived from the original on August 31, 2012. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal endorses Beto O'Rourke in 2018 Texas Senate race". www.facebook.com. Retrieved April 16, 2019. ^ ACLU Official Statement (May 15, 2003), "Celebrities Speak out for Civil Rights". Retrieved September 19, 2006. Archived August 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine ^ Dennis Van Tine, Jen Lowery, Bennett Marcus (October 4, 2005), "ACLU Freedom Concert" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Open all night. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ Foley, Jack (2003). "The Day After Tomorrow Jake Gyllenhaal Q&A". Indie London. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Curry, Carolann (May 27, 2004). "2004: The year of Jake Gyllenhaal". Archived from the original on September 24, 2004. Retrieved August 24, 2006., Youth Quake magazine. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (April 26, 2005). "Ice Crusade". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2017. ^ Spectral Productions Inc. (April 21 & April 22, 2005), Arctic Wisdom. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ "Jake Gyllenhaal is the Honorary Chair of the New Eyes For The Needy Advisory Board". November 21, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ "Fox, Jake Gyllenhaal Join Stand Up To Cancer". TVGuide.com. July 13, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Mechanic, Michael (May 23, 2013). "Why the Producer of "The Hangover Part III" Spends So Much Time in Prison". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ "Carpenter Jake Gyllenhaal". Femalefirst. 2006. Retrieved July 30, 2017. ^ Eimer, David (May 23, 2004). "Jake's Progress". The Times. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ Denizet-Lewis, Benoit. "Jake". Style.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2006. ^ "Berlinale 2012: International Jury". berlinale.de. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2011. ^ People Magazine, "50 Most Beautiful People", April 28, 2006. ^ People magazine, (November 10, 2005), "Ten Things to Love about Jake". Retrieved February 29, 2020. ^ Jenson, Michael (July 23, 2007). "The AfterElton.com Hot 100 List". AfterElton. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. Retrieved July 24, 2007. ^ "GayWired Top Ten Celebrity Countdown Results. 'Gay 4 Pay 2'". Gaywired.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2010. ^ Ashley Baylen (April 20, 2012). "Top 50 Hottest Jewish Men (101)". Shalom Life. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2013.

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This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Jake Gyllenhaal" dated 2007-03-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles
  • Jake Gyllenhaal on IMDb
  • Jake Gyllenhaal at the Internet Broadway Database Edit this at Wikidata
  • Jake Gyllenhaal at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
  • Jake Gyllenhaal at the TCM Movie Database
  • Media related to Jake Gyllenhaal at Wikimedia Commons
Awards for Jake Gyllenhaal
  • v
  • t
  • e
BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role
  • Ian Holm (1968)
  • Laurence Olivier (1969)
  • Colin Welland (1970)
  • Edward Fox (1971)
  • Ben Johnson (1972)
  • Arthur Lowe (1973)
  • John Gielgud (1974)
  • Fred Astaire (1975)
  • Brad Dourif (1976)
  • Edward Fox (1977)
  • John Hurt (1978)
  • Robert Duvall (1979)
  • Ian Holm (1981)
  • Jack Nicholson (1982)
  • Denholm Elliott (1983)
  • Denholm Elliott (1984)
  • Denholm Elliott (1985)
  • Ray McAnally (1986)
  • Daniel Auteuil (1987)
  • Michael Palin (1988)
  • Ray McAnally (1989)
  • Salvatore Cascio (1990)
  • Alan Rickman (1991)
  • Gene Hackman (1992)
  • Ralph Fiennes (1993)
  • Samuel L. Jackson (1994)
  • Tim Roth (1995)
  • Paul Scofield (1996)
  • Tom Wilkinson (1997)
  • Geoffrey Rush (1998)
  • Jude Law (1999)
  • Benicio del Toro (2000)
  • Jim Broadbent (2001)
  • Christopher Walken (2002)
  • Bill Nighy (2003)
  • Clive Owen (2004)
  • Jake Gyllenhaal (2005)
  • Alan Arkin (2006)
  • Javier Bardem (2007)
  • Heath Ledger (2008)
  • Christoph Waltz (2009)
  • Geoffrey Rush (2010)
  • Christopher Plummer (2011)
  • Christoph Waltz (2012)
  • Barkhad Abdi (2013)
  • J. K. Simmons (2014)
  • Mark Rylance (2015)
  • Dev Patel (2016)
  • Sam Rockwell (2017)
  • Mahershala Ali (2018)
  • Brad Pitt (2019)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Evening Standard Theatre Award for Outstanding Newcomer
  • Eve Best (1999)
  • Chiwetel Ejiofor (2000)
  • Rufus Norris (2001)
  • Jake Gyllenhaal (2002)
  • Tom Hardy (2003)
  • Eddie Redmayne (2004)
  • David Babani and Danielle Tarento (2005)
  • Andrew Garfield (2006)
  • Stephen Wight (2007)
  • Ella Smith (2008)
  • Lenny Henry (2009)
  • Kate Bond and Morgan Lloyd (2010)
  • Kyle Soller (2011)
  • Matthew Tennyson (2012)
  • Seth Numrich (2013)
  • v
  • t
  • e
MTV Movie Award for Best Kiss
  • Anna Chlumsky & Macaulay Culkin in My Girl (1992)
  • Christian Slater & Marisa Tomei in Untamed Heart (1993)
  • Demi Moore & Woody Harrelson in Indecent Proposal (1994)
  • Jim Carrey & Lauren Holly in Dumb and Dumber (1995)
  • Natasha Henstridge & Anthony Guidera in Species (1996)
  • Will Smith & Vivica A. Fox in Independence Day (1997)
  • Adam Sandler & Drew Barrymore in The Wedding Singer (1998)
  • Gwyneth Paltrow & Joseph Fiennes in Shakespeare in Love (1999)
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar & Selma Blair in Cruel Intentions (2000)
  • Julia Stiles & Sean Patrick Thomas in Save the Last Dance (2001)
  • Jason Biggs & Seann William Scott in American Pie 2 (2002)
  • Tobey Maguire & Kirsten Dunst in Spider-Man (2003)
  • Owen Wilson, Carmen Electra & Amy Smart in Starsky & Hutch (2004)
  • Ryan Gosling & Rachel McAdams in The Notebook (2005)
  • Heath Ledger & Jake Gyllenhaal in Brokeback Mountain (2006)
  • Will Ferrell & Sacha Baron Cohen in Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby (2007)
  • Briana Evigan & Robert Hoffman in Step Up 2: The Streets (2008)
  • Robert Pattinson & Kristen Stewart in Twilight (2009)
  • Robert Pattinson & Kristen Stewart in The Twilight Saga: New Moon (2010)
  • Robert Pattinson & Kristen Stewart in The Twilight Saga: Eclipse (2011)
  • Robert Pattinson & Kristen Stewart in The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 1 (2012)
  • Jennifer Lawrence & Bradley Cooper in Silver Linings Playbook (2013)
  • Emma Roberts, Jennifer Aniston & Will Poulter in We're the Millers (2014)
  • Ansel Elgort & Shailene Woodley in The Fault in Our Stars (2015)
  • Rebel Wilson & Adam DeVine in Pitch Perfect 2 (2016)
  • Ashton Sanders & Jharrel Jerome in Moonlight (2017)
  • Nick Robinson & Keiynan Lonsdale in Love, Simon (2018)
  • Noah Centineo & Lana Condor in To All the Boys I've Loved Before (2019)
  • v
  • t
  • e
MTV Movie Award for Best Performance in a MovieBest Male Performance
(19922005, 20082016)
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger (1992)
  • Denzel Washington (1993)
  • Tom Hanks (1994)
  • Brad Pitt (1995)
  • Jim Carrey (1996)
  • Tom Cruise (1997)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (1998)
  • Jim Carrey (1999)
  • Keanu Reeves (2000)
  • Tom Cruise (2001)
  • Will Smith (2002)
  • Eminem (2003)
  • Johnny Depp (2004)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (2005)
  • Will Smith (2008)
  • Zac Efron (2009)
  • Robert Pattinson (2010)
  • Robert Pattinson (2011)
  • Josh Hutcherson (2012)
  • Bradley Cooper (2013)
  • Josh Hutcherson (2014)
  • Bradley Cooper (2015)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (2016)
Best Female Performance
(19922005, 20082016)
  • Linda Hamilton (1992)
  • Sharon Stone (1993)
  • Janet Jackson (1994)
  • Sandra Bullock (1995)
  • Alicia Silverstone (1996)
  • Claire Danes (1997)
  • Neve Campbell (1998)
  • Cameron Diaz (1999)
  • Sarah Michelle Gellar (2000)
  • Julia Roberts (2001)
  • Nicole Kidman (2002)
  • Kirsten Dunst (2003)
  • Uma Thurman (2004)
  • Lindsay Lohan (2005)
  • Ellen Page (2008)
  • Kristen Stewart (2009)
  • Kristen Stewart (2010)
  • Kristen Stewart (2011)
  • Jennifer Lawrence (2012)
  • Jennifer Lawrence (2013)
  • Jennifer Lawrence (2014)
  • Shailene Woodley (2015)
  • Charlize Theron (2016)
Best Performance
(20062007, 2017present)
  • Jake Gyllenhaal (2006)
  • Johnny Depp (2007)
  • Emma Watson (2017)
  • Chadwick Boseman (2018)
  • Lady Gaga (2019)
  • v
  • t
  • e
National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actor
  • John Williams (1954)
  • Charles Bickford (1955)
  • Richard Basehart (1956)
  • Sessue Hayakawa (1957)
  • Albert Salmi (1958)
  • Hugh Griffith (1959)
  • George Peppard (1960)
  • Jackie Gleason (1961)
  • Burgess Meredith (1962)
  • Melvyn Douglas (1963)
  • Martin Balsam (1964)
  • Harry Andrews (1965)
  • Robert Shaw (1966)
  • Paul Ford (1967)
  • Leo McKern (1968)
  • Philippe Noiret (1969)
  • Frank Langella (1970)
  • Ben Johnson (1971)
  • Joel Grey / Al Pacino (1972)
  • John Houseman (1973)
  • Holger Lowenadler (1974)
  • Charles Durning (1975)
  • Jason Robards (1976)
  • Tom Skerritt (1977)
  • Richard Farnsworth (1978)
  • Paul Dooley (1979)
  • Joe Pesci (1980)
  • Jack Nicholson (1981)
  • Robert Preston (1982)
  • Jack Nicholson (1983)
  • John Malkovich (1984)
  • Klaus Maria Brandauer (1985)
  • Daniel Day-Lewis (1986)
  • Sean Connery (1987)
  • River Phoenix (1988)
  • Alan Alda (1989)
  • Joe Pesci (1990)
  • Anthony Hopkins (1991)
  • Jack Nicholson (1992)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (1993)
  • Gary Sinise (1994)
  • Kevin Spacey (1995)
  • Edward Norton (1996)
  • Greg Kinnear (1997)
  • Ed Harris (1998)
  • Philip Seymour Hoffman (1999)
  • Joaquin Phoenix (2000)
  • Jim Broadbent (2001)
  • Chris Cooper (2002)
  • Alec Baldwin (2003)
  • Thomas Haden Church (2004)
  • Jake Gyllenhaal (2005)
  • Djimon Hounsou (2006)
  • Casey Affleck (2007)
  • Josh Brolin (2008)
  • Woody Harrelson (2009)
  • Christian Bale (2010)
  • Christopher Plummer (2011)
  • Leonardo DiCaprio (2012)
  • Will Forte (2013)
  • Edward Norton (2014)
  • Sylvester Stallone (2015)
  • Jeff Bridges (2016)
  • Willem Dafoe (2017)
  • Sam Elliott (2018)
  • Brad Pitt (2019)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
  • Benicio del Toro (2000)
  • Steve Buscemi (2001)
  • Daniel Day-Lewis (2002)
  • Sean Penn (2003)
  • Jamie Foxx (2004)
  • Philip Seymour Hoffman (2005)
  • Forest Whitaker (2006)
  • Daniel Day-Lewis (2007)
  • Sean Penn (2008)
  • Colin Firth (2009)
  • Colin Firth (2010)
  • Michael Fassbender (2011)
  • Joaquin Phoenix (2012)
  • Oscar Isaac (2013)
  • Jake Gyllenhaal (2014)
  • Michael Fassbender (2015)
  • Casey Affleck (2016)
  • Daniel Day-Lewis (2017)
  • Ethan Hawke (2018)
  • Adam Driver (2019)
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • BIBSYS: 3011207
  • BNE: XX4580999
  • BNF: cb141844834 (data)
  • CANTIC: a12373576
  • GND: 129166952
  • ISNI: 0000 0001 1780 6535
  • LCCN: no99077345
  • NKC: ola2003198099
  • NLA: 40920845
  • NLI: 002312622
  • NTA: 212776924
  • SUDOC: 113504853
  • Trove: 1449715
  • VIAF: 119841478
  • WorldCat Identities: lccn-no99077345

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