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Barack Obama
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Barack ObamaObama standing with his arms folded and smiling44th President of the United StatesIn office
January 20, 2009 January 20, 2017Vice PresidentJoe BidenPreceded byGeorge W. BushSucceeded byDonald TrumpUnited States Senator
from IllinoisIn office
January 3, 2005 November 16, 2008Preceded byPeter FitzgeraldSucceeded byRoland BurrisMember of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th districtIn office
January 8, 1997 November 4, 2004Preceded byAlice PalmerSucceeded byKwame RaoulPersonal detailsBornBarack Hussein Obama II
August 4, 1961
Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.Political partyDemocraticSpouse(s)Michelle Robinson (m.1992)ChildrenMalia
SashaMotherAnn DunhamFatherBarack Obama Sr.RelativesSee Obama familyResidenceKalorama (Washington, D.C.)EducationPunahou SchoolAlma materColumbia University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)Awards
  • Nobel Peace Prize (2009)
  • Profile in Courage Award (2017)
SignatureWebsiteOfficial website
Obama Foundation
White House Archives

Barack Hussein Obama II (/b??r??k hu??se?n o??b??m?/ (About this soundlisten);[1] born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008 and an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004.

Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black person to head the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Turning to elective politics, he represented the 13th district from 1997 until 2004 in the Illinois Senate, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. Obama received national attention in 2004 with his March Senate primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his presidential campaign began, and after close primary campaigns against Hillary Clinton. Obama was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated alongside Joe Biden on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly referred to as the "Affordable Care Act" or "Obamacare"), the DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United StatesRussia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya, contributing to the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusion for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was legalized nationwide in 2015 after the Court ruled so in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning global warming and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama nominated three justices to the Supreme Court: Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan were confirmed as justices, while Merrick Garland faced partisan obstruction and was not confirmed. During his term in office, America's reputation abroad significantly improved.[2]

Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office in January 2017 but continues to reside in Washington, D.C.[3][4]

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Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Obama was born on August 4, 1961,[5] at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii at 7:24 pm.[6][7][8] He is the only president born outside the contiguous 48 states.[9] He was born to an American mother of European descent and an African father. His mother, Ann Dunham (19421995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,[10] with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[11] (In July 2012, found a strong likelihood that Stanley Ann Dunham was descended from John Punch, an enslaved African man who lived in the Colony of Virginia during the seventeenth century.[12][13]) His father, Barack Obama Sr. (19361982),[14] was a married[15][16][17] Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo.[15][18] Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.[19][20] The couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.[21][22]

In late August 1961, a few weeks after he was born, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.[23] Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance.[24] He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas 1971,[25] before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old.[26] Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around methat he was black as pitch, my mother white as milkbarely registered in my mind."[20] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[27]

Obama (right) with his father in Hawaii, 1971

In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro at the University of Hawaii; he was an Indonesian EastWest Center graduate student in geography. The couple married on Molokai on March 15, 1965.[28] After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet sub district of south Jakarta. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng sub district of central Jakarta.[29]


Obama started in St. Francis Pre-Education from age three to five. From age six to ten, he then attended local Indonesian-language schools: Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School) for two years and Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01 (State Elementary School Menteng 01/Besuki school) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.[30][31] As a result of those four years in Jakarta, he was able to speak Indonesian fluently as a child.[32][33][34] During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works."[35]

In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended Punahou Schoola private college preparatory schoolwith the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.[36] In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry".[37] Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, Maya Soetoro, in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.[38] Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.[39] His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.[40]

Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offeredto experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respectbecame an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[41] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[42] Obama was also a member of the "choom gang," a self-named group of friends who spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.[43][44]

After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to Los Angeles to attend Occidental College on a full scholarship. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.[45] In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks.[45] Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations[46] and in English literature[47] and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.[48] He graduated with a BA degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the Business International Corporation, where he was a financial researcher and writer,[49][50] then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York campus for three months in 1985.[51][52][53]

Family and personal life

Main article: Family of Barack Obama

In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[54] Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng) and seven other half-siblings from his Kenyan father's familysix of them living.[55] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham,[56] until her death on November 2, 2008,[57] two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011.[58] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He also shares distant ancestors in common with George W. Bush and Dick Cheney, among others.[59][60][61]

Obama lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s.[62] He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.[62][63] The relationship was not made public until May 2017, several months after his presidency had ended.[63]

Obama poses in the Green Room of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009

In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[64] Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.[65] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[66] After suffering a miscarriage, Michelle underwent in vitro fertilisation to conceive their children.[67] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[68] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[69] The Obama daughters attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School.[70] The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy.[71] In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny, a female.[72]

Obama about to take a shot while three other players look at him. One of those players attempts to block Obama. Obama takes a left-handed jump shot during a pickup game on the White House basketball court, 2009

Obama is a supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator.[73] In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket.[74] He is also primarily a Chicago Bears football fan in the NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after he took office as president.[75] In 2011, Obama invited the 1985 Chicago Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[76] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team,[77] and he is left-handed.[78]

In 2005, the Obama family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6million house (equivalent to $2.1million in 2019) in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[79] The purchase of an adjacent lotand sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezkoattracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[80]

In December 2007, Money Magazine estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3million (equivalent to $1.6million in 2019) .[81] Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5millionup from about $4.2million in 2007 and $1.6million in 2005mostly from sales of his books.[82][83] On his 2010 income of $1.7million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.[84][85] Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10million.[86]

In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said Barack had quit smoking.[87][88]

On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in Glamour, in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.[89][90][91]

Religious views

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.[92] He wrote in The Audacity of Hope that he "was not raised in a religious household." He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person... I have ever known," and "a lonely witness for secular humanism". He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[93]

The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C., January 2013

In January 2008, Obama told Christianity Today: "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."[94] On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn'tfrankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to leadbeing my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."[95][96]

Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992.[97] During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after some of Wright's statements were criticized.[98] Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.[99][100][101]

Law career

Community organizer and Harvard Law School

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama moved from New York to Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[52][102] He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[103] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[104] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[105][106]

External video Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard, April 24, 1990, 11:34, Boston TV Digital Archive[107] Student Barack Obama introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25.

Despite being offered a full scholarship to Northwestern University School of Law, Obama enrolled at Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts.[108] He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[109] president of the journal in his second year,[103][110] and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.[111] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[112] After graduating with a JD degree magna cum laude[113] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[109] Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[103][110] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[114] which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[114]

Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney

In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book.[114][115] He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[116]

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[117]

He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank, 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).[118] This class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act.[119] The case was settled out of court.[120] Final judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.[121] His law license became inactive in 2007.[122][123]

From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicagowhich in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Projectand of the Joyce Foundation.[52] He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[52]

Legislative career

Illinois State Senator (19972004)

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis in 1998.

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde ParkKenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[124] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.[125][126] He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[127] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[128][129]

He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.[130][131] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[132]

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[133] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[127][134][135][136] During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[137] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[138]

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

Main article: 2004 United States Senate election in Illinois Results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois; Obama won the counties in blue.

In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[139]

Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.[140] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[141] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,[142] and spoke out against the war.[143] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd "it's not too late" to stop the war.[144]

Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.[145] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslidewhich overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.[146] In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention,[147] seen by nine million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.[148]

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[149] Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.[150] In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.[151]

U.S. Senator from Illinois (200508)

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama Official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,[152] becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[153] CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[154]

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[155] He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: LugarObama, which expanded the NunnLugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons;[156] and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[157] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obamaalong with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCainintroduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[158]

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[159] Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[160]

Gray-haired man and Obama stand, wearing casual polo shirts. Obama wears sunglasses and holds something slung over his right shoulder. Obama and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)[161]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[162][163] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[164][165] Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,[166][167] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007.[168]

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.[169] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[170] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which was never enacted but later incorporated in the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010;[171] and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[172] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[173]

Obama speaks with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006.

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[174] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[175] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[176] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.[177]

Presidential campaigns


Main articles: 2008 United States presidential election, Barack Obama 2008 presidential primary campaign, and Barack Obama 2008 presidential campaign Photograph Obama on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[178][179] The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[178][180] Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and reforming the health care system,[181] in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.[182]

Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[183] On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.[184]

Photograph Outgoing President George W. Bush meets with President-elect Obama in the Oval Office on November 10, 2008.

On August 23, Obama announced his selection of Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[185] Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.[185] At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in his support.[186] Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38million people worldwide.[187][188][189]

During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[190] On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[191]

John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October 2008.[192] On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 electoral votes to 173 received by McCain.[193] Obama won 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%.[194] He became the first African American to be elected president.[195] Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.[196]


Main articles: 2012 United States presidential election and Barack Obama 2012 presidential campaign Obama greets former Governor Mitt Romney in the Oval Office on November 29, 2012, in their first meeting since Obama's re-election victory over Romney.

On April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.[197][198][199] As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries,[200] and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.[201]

At the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama and Joe Biden were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan of Wisconsin.[202]

On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.[203][204][205] With 51.1% of the popular vote,[206] Obama became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win the majority of the popular vote twice.[207][208] Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."[209][210]

Presidency (20092017)

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Barack Obama presidency. See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet and List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama

First 100 days

Main article: First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency Photograph Barack Obama takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.[211] He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[212] but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds[213][214][215] and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.[216] Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.[217] He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.[218]

Domestic policy

See also: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration

The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.[219] Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4million uninsured children.[220] In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.[221]

Obama delivers a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi on February 24, 2009.

Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated Sonia Sotomayor on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,[222] becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic descent.[223] Obama nominated Elena Kagan on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.[224]

On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[225][226]

Obama meets with the Cabinet of the United States, November 23, 2009.

In a major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.[227]

President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and be 80% reliant on "clean" electricity.[228][229]

LGBT rights

On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.[230]

On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality.[231]

On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign[232][233] to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.[234] In 2016, the Pentagon also ended the policy that barred transgender people from serving openly in the military.[235]

As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said he favored legalizing same-sex marriage.[236] By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners but opposed same-sex marriages.[237] In 2008, he reaffirmed this position by stating "I believe marriage is between a man and a woman. I am not in favor of gay marriage."[238] On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.[239][240]

The White House was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.

During his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013,[210] Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the lawfor if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.[241][242]

In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v. Perry (regarding same-sex marriage)[243] and United States v. Windsor (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act).[244] Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."[245]

On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign.[246]

White House advisory and oversight groups

On March 11, 2009, Obama created the White House Council on Women and Girls, which formed part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by Executive Order 13506 with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.[247] The Council was chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett.[248] Obama also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through a government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.[248][249][250] The co-chairs of the Task Force were Vice President Joe Biden and Jarrett.[249] The Task Force was a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that the 1994 Violence Against Women Act first drafted by Biden.[251]

Economic policy

Main article: Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration ">File:20090124 WeeklyAddress.ogvPlay media Obama presents his first weekly address as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession.[252] The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.[253]

Deficit and debt increases, 200116

In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the PublicPrivate Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to twotrillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.[254]

Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry[255] in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat[256] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.[257] In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.[258] He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers," which temporarily boosted the economy.[259][260][261]

The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5trillion, but only $3trillion had been spent by the end of November 2009.[262] Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predicted the 2010 budget deficit would be $1.5trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4trillion or 9.9% of GDP.[263][264] For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit would shrink to $1.34trillion, and the 10-year deficit would increase to $8.53trillion or 90% of GDP.[265] The most recent increase in the U.S. debt ceiling to $17.2trillion took effect in February 2014.[266] On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.[267] By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a U.S. government default on its obligations.[268]

US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. President[269][270]

As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.[271] Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.[272] By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,[273] decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.[274] During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.[275] GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.[276] Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year.[276] In July 2010, the Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain."[277] Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.[278]

The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth.[279][280] The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 12.1million,[280][281][282][283] while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."[279] Although an April 2010, survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.[284] The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of World War II.[285] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus plan of the US and the austerity measures in the European Union.[286]

Within a month of the 2010 midterm elections, Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.[287] The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858billion Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010.[288]

In December 2013, Obama declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.[289]

Obama urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[290]

Environmental policy

See also: Climate change policy of the United States Obama at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana

On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.[291][292]

On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review.[293] As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.[294]

In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and said he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions."[295][296] Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013.[297] On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would have authorized the pipeline.[298] It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.[299]

Obama emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act to create 25 new national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of 553,000,000 acres (224,000,000ha) of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.[300][301][302][303]

Health care reform

Main article: Healthcare reform in the United States Photograph Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010.

Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.[304] He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.[305][306]

Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)[307]

On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.[304] After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.[308] In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.[309]

On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.[310][311] On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own billwithout a public optionon a party-line vote of 6039.[312] On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.[313] Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.[314]

The ACA includes health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid eligibility for people making up to 133%of the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014,[315] subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400%of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,[316][317] providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.[316][318]

Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 19632015 (Source: JAMA)[319]

The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;[320] there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.[321] In March 2010, the CBO estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143billion over the first decade.[322]

The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 54 vote in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.[323] In Burwell v. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 63 in King v. Burwell that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State," as the statute reads.[324]

Energy policy

Main article: Energy policy of the Barack Obama administration

Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.[325] Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy, such as coal mining and oil fracking, has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.[326][327]

Gun control

Main article: Social policy of the Barack Obama administration Gun policy Obama visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012.

On January 16, 2013, one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.[328] He urged Congress to reintroduce an expired ban on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006.[329] On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers.[330] In a 2016 editorial in The New York Times, Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.[331]

2010 midterm elections

Main articles: 2010 United States House of Representatives elections and 2010 United States Senate elections

Obama called the November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,[332] "humbling" and a "shellacking."[333] He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.[334]

Cybersecurity and Internet policy

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[335][336] On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed Executive Order 13636, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."[337]

Government mass surveillance

Main article: Barack Obama on mass surveillance

In 2005 and 2006, Obama criticized certain aspects of the Patriot Act for infringing too much on civil liberties and sought as Senator to strengthen civil liberties protections.[338][339][340] In 2006, he voted to reauthorize a revised version of the Patriot Act, saying the law was not ideal but that the revised version had strengthened civil liberties.[340] In 2011, he signed a four-year renewal of the Patriot Act.[341] Following the 2013 global surveillance disclosures by whistleblower Edward Snowden, Obama condemned the leak as unpatriotic,[339] but called for increased restrictions on the NSA to address violations of privacy.[342][343] The changes which Obama ordered have been described as "modest" however.[344]

Foreign policy

Main article: Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration June 4, 2009 ? after his speech A New Beginning at Cairo University, U.S. President Obama participates in a roundtable interview in 2009 with among others Jamal Khashoggi, Bambang Harymurti and Nahum Barnea.

In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.[345] Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya.[346]

On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.[347][348] In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.[349] On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.[350]

International trips made by President Barack Obama during his terms in office Obama with German Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2011

On June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."[351] While in Moscow on July 7, he responded to Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."[352]

On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations Security Council.[353]

In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.[354][355] During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about a third.[356] Obama and Medvedev signed the New START treaty in April 2010, and the U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010.[357]

Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi at the White House, October 2016.

In December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider LGBT rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.[358] In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminates against gays,[359] but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[360]

In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States.[361] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015.

In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.[362][363] In 2016, the Obama administration proposed a series of arms deals with Saudi Arabia worth $115 billion.[364] Obama halted the sale of guided munition technology to Saudi Arabia after Saudi warplanes targeted a funeral in Yemen's capital Sanaa, killing more than 140 people.[365]

Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor Angela Merkel had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.[366]

War in Iraq

Main articles: Iraq War and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014present)

On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."[367] The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.[368][369] On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over.[370] On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays."[371]

US President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron trade bottles of beer to settle a bet they made on the U.S. vs. England World Cup Soccer game (which ended in a tie), during a bilateral meeting at the G20 Summit in Toronto, Canada, Saturday, June 26, 2010. Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit

In June 2014, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing.[372][373]

In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama ordered a campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS.[374]

By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict[375] and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.[376]

In early 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,[377] and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.[378]

War in Afghanistan

Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001present)

Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.[379] He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan," an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires."[380] He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.[381] On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;[382] this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.[383] In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.[384]

In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.[385]


President Barack Obama, at left, shakes hands with Israeli President Shimon Peres, at right, in the Oval Office on Tuesday, May 5, 2009. Standing at right looking on is U.S. Vice President Joe Biden. Obama meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres in the Oval Office, May 2009

In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so.[386] Obama supports the two-state solution to the ArabIsraeli conflict based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.[387]

In June 2011, Obama said the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable."[388] During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.[389] The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel.[390]

In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."[391] In 2014, Obama likened the Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. He said both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."[392] Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 IsraelGaza conflict.[393] In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad."[394]

On December 23, 2016, under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law, effectively allowing it to pass.[395] Netanyahu strongly criticized the Obama Administration's actions,[396][397] and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.[398] On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 34280 to condemn the UN Resolution.[399][400]


Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya President Obama meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015.

In February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolution[401] passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.[402] In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafiwho had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi[403]announced an immediate cessation of military activities,[404] yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,[405] including the use of Tomahawk missiles, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets.[406][407][408] Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all its 28 members, NATO took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector.[409] Some Representatives[410] questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.[411][412]

Syrian Civil War

See also: Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War United States, and American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War

On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for President Assad to step aside."[413][414] This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.[415] In 2012, Obama authorized multiple programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.[416] The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.[417][418]

In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged[419] and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.[420][421] In 2014, Obama authorized an air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL.[422] In November 2015, the Obama administration began the deployment of U.S. special forces to Syria, on the mission of assisting rebel forces in their fight against ISIL, President Obama then ordered several dozen Special Operations troops into Rojava in northern Syria to assist local fighters battling ISIL, authorizing the first open-ended mission by American ground forces into the country.[423]

Death of Osama bin Laden

Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden ">File:President Obama on Death of Osama bin Laden no watermark.webmPlay media President Obama's address (9:28)
Also available: Audio only; Full textWikisource has information on "Remarks by the President on Osama bin Laden"President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear, a mission against Osama bin Laden, in one of the conference rooms of the Situation Room of the White House, on May 1, 2011. They are watching live feed from drones operating over the bin Laden complex. Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear in the White House Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area 35 miles (56km) from Islamabad.[424] CIA head Leon Panetta reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011.[424] Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs.[424] The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.[425][426] DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,[427] which was buried at sea several hours later.[428] Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's Ground Zero and Times Square.[425][429] Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.[430]

Iran nuclear talks

Main article: Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013.

On October 1, 2009, the Obama administration went ahead with a Bush administration program increasing nuclear weapons production. The Complex Modernization initiative expanded two existing nuclear sites to produce new bomb parts. The administration built new plutonium pits at the Los Alamos lab in New Mexico and expanded enriched uranium processing at the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee[431]. In November 2013, the Obama administration opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action," saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[432][433][434] In addition, the transfer of $1.7 billion in cash to Iran shortly after the deal was announced was criticized by the republican party. The Obama administration said that the payment in cash was because of the "effectiveness of U.S. and international sanctions."[435] In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah from the Drug Enforcement Administration's Project Cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency.[436][437] On a sidenote, the very same year, in December 2015, Obama started a $348 billion worth program to back the biggest U.S. buildup of nuclear arms since Ronald Reagan left the White House[438].

Relations with Cuba

Main article: Cuban thaw President Obama meeting with Cuban President Raul Castro in Panama, April 2015

Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.[439] The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill.[440] On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raul Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the Nelson Mandela memorial service in Johannesburg.[441]

In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of detente.[442] Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, The New Republic deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."[443] On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana.[444] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.[445]

Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge in 1928.[446]


Obama spoke in front of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progress made in education, infrastructure, and economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities (LGBT people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.[447][448] During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.[449]

Hiroshima speech

On May 27, 2016, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan, 71 years after the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima that ended World War II. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum.[450]


See also: RussiaUnited States relations From Obamas first term to election of Trump (200916) Obama meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2015.

After Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria in 2015, and the interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election,[451] Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.[452] George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West," adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.[453]

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama See also: International reactions to the 2008 United States presidential election and International reactions to the 2012 United States presidential election

Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[454] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough," Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[455] Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[456]

Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[457] During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.[458] In his speeches as president, Obama did not make more overt references to race relations than his predecessors,[459][460] but according to one study, he implemented stronger policy action on behalf of African-Americans than any president since the Nixon era.[461]

Presidential approval ratings

According to the Gallup Organization, Obama began his presidency with a 68% approval rating[462] before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,[463] a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office.[464] He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.[465][466] His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.[467] Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.[468]

Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency.[469][470] In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.[471] In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.[472][473]

Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom, President Barack Obama, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, Jose Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, President Francois Hollande of France and others react emotionally while watching the overtime shootout of the Chelsea vs. Bayern Munich Champions League final, in the Laurel Cabin conference room during the G8 Summit at Camp David, Maryland, May 19, 2012. Cameron raises his arms triumphantly as the Chelsea team wins their first Champions League title in the overtime shootout. G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[474] His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can," which was viewed 10million times on YouTube in its first month[475] and received a Daytime Emmy Award.[476] In December 2008 and in 2012, Time magazine named Obama as its Person of the Year.[477] The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which Time described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[478] On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state's being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle in 1960, Nelson Mandela in 1996, Queen Elizabeth II in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.[479][480]

On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[481] Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."[482] The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.[483][484][485][486] Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by The New York Times.[487] He became the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.[488] Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.[489]

Post-presidency (2017present)

Obama, with Joe Biden and Donald Trump at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017

Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews.[490] The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C.[491]

On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."[492] In his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago on April 24. The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.[493] On May 4, three days ahead of the French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed centrist Emmanuel Macron over right-wing populist Marine Le Pen: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."[494] Macron went on to win the election.

While in Berlin on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.[495] Obama traveled to Kensington Palace in England and met with Prince Harry on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior.[496]

After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."[497]

Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017

After Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."[498] On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions."[499]

After Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program on September 5, Obama released a Facebook post criticizing the decision.[500] Two days later, he partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.[501]

Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago on October 31. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.[502] Obama has also been working on a Presidential memoir, in a reported $65 million deal with Penguin Random House.[503]

Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017, and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing.[504][505] He then went to India, where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.[506][507] He also met with the Dalai Lama while in New Delhi.[508] He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President Francois Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.[509]

In May 2018, After President Trump announced the United States withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action nuclear deal with Iran, Obama criticized the decision and said "the deal was working and it was in US interests."[510][511]

Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22, 2018 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for Netflix under the Obamas' newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions. On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others."[512][513] Higher Ground's first film, American Factory, won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2020.[514]

A package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to Obama's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. The package was intercepted by the Secret Service during routine mail screenings. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of Donald Trump and to CNN. Debbie Wasserman Schultz was addressed as the sender of the package. On October 26, 2018, Cesar Sayoc was arrested and faced five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs.[515][516] He was sentenced to a maximum of 20 years in prison on August 5, 2019.[517]

In 2019, Barack and Michelle Obama bought a home on Martha's Vineyard from Wyc Grousbeck.[518][519]

On April 14, 2020, Obama endorsed his former vice president Joe Biden for president in the 2020 election.[520]

In May 2020, Obama criticised President Trump for his handling of the coronavirus pandemic, calling his response to the crisis "an absolute chaotic disaster." Trump reacted by retweeting Twitter posts which accused Obama of targeting incoming officials and sabotaging the Trump administration in the last weeks of his presidency and by calling this endeavour "the biggest political crime in American history".[521]

On May 16, 2020, Obama delivered two commencement speeches on behalf of the graduating youth who were not able to go to their physical graduation ceremonies due to the COVID 19 pandemic. His first speech was for part of the video streamed online program, Show Me Your Walk H.B.C.U. Edition virtual commencement.[522] In his address, he spoke about systemic racism, touching on both the coronavirus pandemic, the shooting death of Ahmaud Arbery, and the fight to stay politically active saying, "The fight for equality and justice begins with awareness, empathy, passion, even righteous anger. Don't just activate yourself online, change requires strategy, action, organizing, marching, and voting in the real world like never before". His next commencement address was apart of a nationally televised event, titled Graduate Together: America Honors the High School Class of 2020 which aired on NBC.[523] He will give a third commencement address on June 8.


Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to other presidents, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term

Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020. Many attempts by Senate Republicans to repeal the PPACA, including a "skinny repeal," have thus far failed.[524] Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid in 1965.[525][526][527][528]

Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession.[524] According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama administration created 11.3million jobs from the month after his first inauguration to the end of his term.[529] In 2010, Obama signed into effect the DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 200708, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[530]

In 2009, Obama signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity.

As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights.[531] In 2010, he signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from LGB people; the law went into effect the following year.[532] In 2016, his administration brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the U.S. armed forces.[533][235] A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.[534]

Obama substantially escalated the use of drone strikes against suspected militants and terrorists associated with al-Qaeda and the Taliban.[535][536] In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.[537][538] Obama left about 8,400 US troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 in Iraq, 503 in Syria, 133 in Pakistan, 106 in Somalia, seven in Yemen, and two in Libya at the end of his presidency.[539][540]

According to Pew Research Center and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009, to December 31, 2015, inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by five percent. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democratic President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.[541]

Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.[542][543] A 2018 survey of historians by the American Political Science Association ranked Obama the 8th-greatest American President.[4] Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the Brookings Institution that ranked Obama the 18th-greatest American President.[544]

Presidential library

Main article: Barack Obama Presidential Center

The Barack Obama Presidential Center is Obama's planned presidential library. It will be hosted by the University of Chicago and located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago.[545]


  • Dreams from My Father, 1995
  • The Audacity of Hope, 2006
  • Of Thee I Sing, 2010


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See also


  • Social policy of the Barack Obama administration
  • DREAM Act
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
  • List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama
  • Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012
  • Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009
  • National Broadband Plan (United States)
  • Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  • SPEECH Act
  • Stay with It
  • White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy


  • Speeches of Barack Obama
  • Roberts Court


  • Assassination threats against Barack Obama
  • List of people granted executive clemency by Barack Obama
  • Federal political scandals, 200917
  • List of Barack Obama 2008 presidential campaign endorsements
  • List of Barack Obama 2012 presidential campaign endorsements
  • List of African-American United States senators
  • List of things named after Barack Obama

Notes and references


^ "Barack Hussein Obama Takes The Oath Of Office" on YouTube. January 20, 2009. ^ Wan, William; Scott Clement (November 18, 2016). "Most of the world doesn't actually see America the way Trump said it did". The Washington Post. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (February 15, 2018). "Obama's First Retrospective Job Approval Rating Is 63%". Retrieved April 5, 2018. ^ a b Rottinghaus, Brandon; Justin S. Vaughn (February 19, 2018). "How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Bestand WorstPresidents?". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018. ^ "President Barack Obama". The White House. 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2008. ^ "Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24pm, Honolulu" (PDF). Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017. ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p.A22. Retrieved October 28, 2008. ^ Nakaso, Dan (December 22, 2008). "Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years". The Honolulu Advertiser. p.B1. Retrieved January 22, 2011. ^ Barreto, Amilcar Antonio; Richard L. O'Bryant (November 12, 2013). "Introduction". American Identity in the Age of Obama. Taylor & Francis. pp.1819. ISBN978-1-317-93715-9. Retrieved May 8, 2017. ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12. ^ Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (NovemberDecember 2008). "The quest for Obama's Irish roots". Ancestry. 26 (6): 4647, 49. ISSN1075-475X. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  • Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost. Retrieved May 19, 2011.
  • Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June 4, 2009). "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
  • Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times. Press Association of Ireland. p.3. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
  • Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own". The Washington Post. p.A14. Retrieved May 13, 2007.
  • David Williamson (July 5, 2008). "Wales link in US presidential candidate's past". Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
^ " Discovers Ph Suggests" Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times. July 30, 2012. ^ Hennessey, Kathleen. "Obama related to legendary Virginia slave, genealogists say", Los Angeles Times. July 30, 2012. ^ Kipkemboi, Andrew (June 1, 2008). "Kenyans Enthusiastic About Obama". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ a b Jacobs, Sally (July 6, 2011). "President Obama's Father: A 'Bold And Reckless Life'". NPR. Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ Swaine, Jon (April 29, 2011). "Barack Obama's father 'forced out of US in 1960s'". Telegraph. Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ Rachel L. Swarns. "Words of Obama's Father Still Waiting to Be Read by His Son - The New York Times". Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ David R Arnott. "From Obama's old school to his ancestral village, world reacts to US presidential election". Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p.1 (Tempo). Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. ^ a b Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 910.
  • Scott (2011), pp. 8086.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115118.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 154160.
^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Retrieved April 9, 2007. ^ Scott (2011), p. 86.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 125127.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 160163.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 8793.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115118, 125127, 133161.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 170183, 188189.
^ Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance" ^ Scott (2011), pp. 142144.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 161177, 227230.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 190194, 201209, 227230.
^ Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found". The EastAfrican. Nairobi. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  • Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The ghost of a father". The Washington Post. p.A12. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
  • Jacobs (2011), pp. 251255.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 411417.
^ Serrano, Richard A. (March 11, 2007). "Obama's peers didn't see his angst". Los Angeles Times. p.A20. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 97103.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 195201, 225230.
^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 195201, 209223, 230244. ^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234244. ^ "Barack Obama: Calvert Homeschooler?Calvert Education Blog". January 25, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2015. ^ "Wawancara Eksklusif RCTI dengan Barack Obama (Part 2)". YouTube. March 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2018. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2009). "Obama's Indonesian Redux". Language Log. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
  • "Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan". Kompas (in Indonesian). November 26, 2008. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008.
^ Zimmer, Benjamin (January 23, 2009). "Obama's Indonesian pleasantries: the video". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved October 7, 2012. ^ Meacham, Jon (August 22, 2008). "What Barack Obama Learned from His Father". Newsweek. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017. ^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008.
  • Scott, Janny (March 14, 2008). "A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path". The New York Times. p.A1. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
  • Scott (2012), pp. 131134.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 264269.
^ Wolffe, Richard (March 22, 2008). "When Barry Became Barack". Newsweek. Retrieved March 21, 2016. ^ Scott (2011), pp. 139157.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279281.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 157194.
  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279281, 324326.
^ Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317346. ^ Reyes, B.J. (February 8, 2007). "Punahou left lasting impression on Obama". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved February 10, 2007. As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were attended mostly by blacks. ^ Elliott, Philip (November 21, 2007). "Obama gets blunt with N.H. students". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. p.8A. Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012. ^ Karl, Jonathan (May 25, 2012). "Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang"". ABC News. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  • Obama, Barack (2004) [1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. pp.9394. ISBN9780307394125. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  • Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. pages with "choom gang". ISBN9781439167533. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  • for analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see:
  • Seelye, Katharine Q. (October 24, 2006). "Obama offers more variations from the norm". The New York Times. p.A21. Retrieved October 29, 2006.
  • Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's candor remains to be seen". The Washington Post. p.A1. Retrieved January 14, 2007.
^ "FRONTLINE The Choice 2012". PBS. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012. ^ a b Gordon, Larry (January 29, 2007). "Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama". Los Angeles Times. p.B1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
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  • Miller, Lisa (July 11, 2008). "Finding his faith". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2012. He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago.
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"Obama laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris". Reuters. Retrieved December 3, 2017. ^ Cite error: The named reference bbc was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Statement Archived May 11, 2018, at the Wayback Machine 5/8/18 ^ Neuman, Scott (May 22, 2018). "Obamas Sign Deal With Netflix, Form 'Higher Ground Productions'". Retrieved September 17, 2018. ^ Harris, Hunter (May 21, 2018). "The Obamas Will Produce Movies and Shows for Netflix". Vulture. Retrieved September 17, 2018. ^ Gonzalez, Sandra (January 13, 2020). "Barack and Michelle Obama's production company scores first Oscar nomination". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2020. ^ Kennedy, Merrit (October 24, 2018). "Apparent 'Pipe Bombs' Mailed To Clinton, Obama And CNN". NPR. Retrieved October 25, 2018. ^ ""Potentially destructive devices" sent to Clinton, Obama, CNN prompt massive response". CBS News. October 24, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018. ^ "Cesar Sayoc, who mailed explosive devices to Trump's critics, sentenced to 20 years in prison". The Washington Post. August 5, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019. ^ Lukpat, Alyssa (December 5, 2019). "Obamas reportedly buy Martha's Vineyard waterfront estate for $11.75 million". Boston Globe. ^ Howley, Kathleen (September 1, 2019). "Barack And Michelle Obama Are Buying Martha's Vineyard Estate From Boston Celtics Owner". Forbes. ^ Astor, Maggie; Glueck, Katie (April 14, 2020). "Barack Obama Endorses Joe Biden for President". The New York Times. ^ Solender, Andrew. "Trump Accuses Obama Of A Crime In White House Press Briefing". Forbes. Retrieved May 12, 2020. ^ "Obama's HBCU commencement speech doubles as an indictment of the Trump era". Vox. Retrieved May 16, 2020. ^ "Obama delivers commencement address for high school seniors as part of "Graduate Together" ceremony". May 16, 2020. ^ a b "Obama Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act". ABC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017. ^ Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 11121116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN0278-2715. PMID20530339. ^ Blumenthal, David; Abrams, Melinda; Nuzum, Rachel (June 18, 2015). "The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (25): 24512458. doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614. ISSN0028-4793. PMID25946142. ^ Cohen, Alan B.; Colby, David C.; Wailoo, Keith A.; Zelizer, Julian E. (June 1, 2015). Medicare and Medicaid at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care. Oxford University Press. ISBN978-0190231569. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Pear, Robert (March 23, 2010). "Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law". The New York Times. ^ Long, Heather (January 6, 2017). "Final tally: Obama created 11.3 million jobs". CNN. ^ "Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform". CBS News. Retrieved March 15, 2017. ^ Crary, David (January 4, 2017). "LGBT activists view Obama as staunch champion of their cause". Associated Press. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (July 22, 2011). "Obama Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy". The New York Times. ^ Merrit Kennedy (June 30, 2016). "Pentagon Says Transgender Troops Can Now Serve Openly". NPR. ^ Smith, Michael; Newport, Frank (January 9, 2017). "Americans Assess Progress Under Obama". The Gallup Organization. ^ Zenko, Micah (January 12, 2016). "Obama's Embrace of Drone Strikes Will Be a Lasting Legacy". The New York Times. Retrieved March 2, 2019. ^ "Targeted Killings". Council on Foreign Relations. ^ Grandin, Greg (January 15, 2017). "Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?". The Nation. Retrieved January 11, 2018. ^ Agerholm, Harriet (January 19, 2017). "Map shows where President Barack Obama dropped his 20,000 bombs". The Independent. Retrieved January 11, 2018. ^ Parsons, Christi; Hennigan, W. J. (January 13, 2017). "President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war". Los Angeles Times. ^ "DoD Personnel, Workforce Reports & Publications". Retrieved January 16, 2020. ^ Gramlich, John (January 5, 2017). "Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend". Pew Research Center. ^ Cone, Allen (January 18, 2017). "Obama leaving office at 60% approval rating". United Press International. Retrieved February 26, 2017. ^ Agiesta, Jennifer (January 18, 2017). "Obama approval hits 60% as end of term approaches". CNN. Retrieved February 26, 2017. ^ Rottinghaus, Brandon; Justin S. Vaughn (February 13, 2015). "Measuring Obama against the great presidents". Brookings. ^ "Obama Foundation FAQs". Barack Obama Foundation. Retrieved January 16, 2020.


.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}
  • Jacobs, Sally H. (2011). The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN978-1586487935.
  • Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN978-1439160404.
  • Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN978-0-06-085820-9.
  • Obama, Barack (2004) [1st pub. 1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN978-1400082773.
  • Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN978-0307237699.
  • Scott, Janny (2011). A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN978-1594487972.

Further reading

  • Graff, Garrett M. (November 1, 2006). "The Legend of Barack Obama". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • Koltun, Dave (2005). "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star"". In Ahuja, Sunil; Dewhirst, Robert (eds.). The Road to Congress 2004. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN978-1-59454-360-9.
  • Lizza, Ryan (September 2007). "Above the Fray". GQ. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
  • Larissa MacFarquhar (May 7, 2007). "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
  • McClelland, Edward (2010). Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN978-1608190607.
  • Zutter, Hank De (December 8, 1995). "What Makes Obama Run?". Chicago Reader. Retrieved April 25, 2015.

External links


  • Official website of The Obama Foundation
  • Official website of the Barack Obama Presidential Library
  • Official website of Organizing for Action
  • White House biography


  • Column archive at The Huffington Post
  • Barack Obama at the Encyclop?dia Britannica
  • Obama, B (2016). "United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps". JAMA. 316 (5): 52532. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9797. PMC5069435. PMID27400401.
  • Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare". Time magazine. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act'". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  • Obama B. "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform". Harvard Law Review. Published January 5, 2017.
  • Barack Obama at Curlie
  • United States Congress. "Barack Obama (id: O000167)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Barack Obama articles in the archive of the Chicago Tribune
  • Collected news and commentary at the Tampa Bay Times's
  • Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post's Fact Checker blog
  • "Barack Obama is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history" by Vox author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context.
  • Making Obama. Making. 2018. WBEZ. "Former President Barack Obamaalong with key advisers, mentors, and rivalstells the story of his climb from Chicago to the national stage."
  • Works by Barack Obama at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Barack Obama at Internet Archive
  • Works by Barack Obama at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • Barack Obama on IMDbEdit this at Wikidata
  • Barack Obama at Edit this at Wikidata
  • Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Emory University: Barack Obama letters to Alexandra McNear, 1982-1984
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Barack Obama
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Offices and distinctions Illinois Senate Precededby
Alice Palmer Member of the Illinois Senate
from the 13th district

19972004 Succeededby
Kwame Raoul Party political offices Precededby
Carol Moseley Braun Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois
(Class 3)

2004 Succeededby
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2004 Succeededby
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2008, 2012 Succeededby
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Peter Fitzgerald United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
Served alongside: Dick Durbin Succeededby
Roland Burris Political offices Precededby
George W. Bush President of the United States
20092017 Succeededby
Donald Trump Awards and achievements Precededby
Martti Ahtisaari Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
2009 Succeededby
Liu Xiaobo U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Precededby
George W. Bush
as Former President Order of Precedence of the United States
Former President
Walter Mondale
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Retrieved from ""
barack obama african family photos
barack obama african family photos

Family of Barack Obama
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The Obama familyBarack Obama family portrait 2011.jpgCurrent regionUnited States (Chicago / Washington, D.C.)MembersBarack Obama, Michelle Obama, Ann Dunham, Barack Obama Sr.Connected familiesRobinson, Dunham, Soetoro, Ng

The family of Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States, and his wife Michelle Obama is made up of people of Kenyan (Luo), African-American, and Old Stock American (including originally English, Scots-Irish, Welsh, German, and Swiss) ancestry.[1][2][3][4][5] Their immediate family was the First Family of the United States from 2009 to 2017.[6] The Obamas are the first First Family of African-American descent.[7]

.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}

Immediate family

Michelle Obama

Main article: Michelle Obama

Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is an American lawyer, university administrator, and writer who served as the First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017.[6] She is Barack Obama's wife, and was the first African-American first lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago,[8] Michelle Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School,[9] and spent her early legal career working at the law firm Sidley Austin, where she met her husband.[10] She subsequently worked as the associate dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago[11] and the vice president for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center.[12] Barack and Michelle married in 1992.[13]

Michelle campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention.[14] She returned to speak at the 2012 Democratic National Convention,[15] and again during the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, where she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, and fellow first lady, Hillary Clinton.[16]

As first lady, Michelle Obama sought to become a role model for women, an advocate for poverty awareness, education, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating, and became a fashion icon.[17][18]

Malia Obama and Sasha Obama

Barack and Michelle Obama have two daughters: Malia Ann (/m??li??/), born July 4, 1998,[19][20] and Natasha (known as Sasha /?s????/), born on June 10, 2001.[21] They were both delivered at University of Chicago Medical Center by their parents' friend and physician Anita Blanchard.[22] Sasha was the youngest child to reside in the White House since JohnF. KennedyJr. arrived as an infant in 1961.[23] In 2014, Malia and Sasha were named two of "The 25 Most Influential Teens of 2014" by Time magazine.[24]

From left to right: Malia, Michelle, and Sasha on stage at the 2008 Democratic National Convention

Before his inauguration, President Obama published an open letter to his daughters in Parade magazine, describing what he wants for them and every child in America: "to grow up in a world with no limits on your dreams and no achievements beyond your reach, and to grow into compassionate, committed women who will help build that world."[25]

While living in Chicago, the Obamas kept busy schedules, as the Associated Press reported: "soccer, dance and drama for Malia, gymnastics and tap for Sasha, piano and tennis for both."[26][27] In July 2008, the family gave an interview to the television series Access Hollywood. Obama later said they regretted allowing the children to be included.[28] Malia and Sasha both graduated from the private Sidwell Friends School in Washington,D.C., the same school that Chelsea Clinton, Tricia Nixon Cox, and Archibald Roosevelt attended and that the grandchildren of Vice President Joe Biden attend.[29] The Obama girls began classes there on January 5, 2009;[30] Malia graduated in 2016. Before the family moved to Washington in 2009, both girls attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory School.[31]

In his victory speech on the night of his election, President Obama repeated his promise to Sasha and Malia to get a puppy to take with them to the White House.[32] The selection was slow because Malia is allergic to animal dander;[33] the president subsequently said that the choice had been narrowed down to either a labradoodle or a Portuguese Water Dog, and that they hoped to find a shelter animal.[34] On April 12, 2009, it was reported that the Obamas had adopted a six-month-old Portuguese Water Dog given to them as a gift by Senator Ted Kennedy;[35] Malia and Sasha named the dog Bo.[35] The White House referred to Bo as the First Dog.[36] In 2013, the family adopted a second Portuguese Water Dog named Sunny.[37]

As a high school student, Malia Obama spent a portion of the summer in 2014 and 2015 working in television studios in New York and Los Angeles.[38] She spent the summer of 2016 working as an intern in the U.S. Embassy in Madrid, Spain.[39]

During the week June 26, 2016, to July 3, 2016, Michelle, Sasha, Malia and Michelle's mother Marian Robinson went to Liberia to promote the Let Girls Learn Peace initiative, for which the United States has funded $27 million in aid for expansion.[40] They met with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, the first elected female head of state in Africa.[40] Then they moved to Morocco, where they had a panel with Freida Pinto and Meryl Streep moderated by CNN's Isha Sesay in Marrakesh and delivered a substantive amount of money to aid 62 million girls lacking access to formal education. They proceeded to Spain where Michelle delivered a message about the initiative.[40]

In August 2016, Sasha began working at Nancy's, a seafood restaurant in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.[41] In the fall of 2016, Malia went on an 83-day trip to Bolivia and Peru.[42] In February 2017, Malia started an internship for Harvey Weinstein at The Weinstein Company film studio in New York City.[43] In August 2017, Malia started attending Harvard University.[44] Sasha graduated from Sidwell Friends in 2019 and began attending the University of Michigan in the fall.[45][46]

Marian Robinson

Further information: Michelle Obama's extended family

Marian Robinson, Michelle Obama's mother, resided in the White House during the Obama presidency.

Maternal relations

Barack Obama was raised by his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, called Ann, and maternal grandparents Madelyn and Stanley Dunham.[47][48]

He often referred to his family during his candidacy and term as president.[49][50][51] Obama's maternal heritage consists mostly of English ancestry, with smaller amounts of German, Scotch-Irish, Welsh, and Swiss ancestry.[3] Research published in 2012 stated that Obama is likely descended from the African slave John Punch through his mother's Bunch line, with generations of African Americans who gradually married "white" on the way to Kansas.[52]

Ann Dunham (19421995)

Main article: Ann Dunham

Obama's mother was born Stanley Ann Dunham. She became an anthropologist, specializing in economic anthropology and rural development. She earned her PhD degree from the University of Hawaii at Manoa and worked with the United States Agency for International Development, the Ford Foundation, and Women's World Banking, to promote the use of microcredit in order to combat global poverty.[47][53] The Ann Dunham Soetoro Endowment in the Anthropology Department at the University of Hawai?i at Manoa and the Ann Dunham Soetoro Graduate Fellowships at the EastWest Center (EWC) in Honolulu, Hawaii, are named in her honor.[54] Obama has said that his mother was the dominant figure of his formative years. "The values she taught me continue to be my touchstone when it comes to how I go about the world of politics."[55]

Stanley Armour Dunham (19181992)

Main article: Stanley Armour Dunham

Stanley Armour Dunham is the maternal grandfather of Barack Obama. He served as a sergeant in the U.S. Army during World War II, enlisting just after the attacks on Pearl Harbor. He and his wife Madelyn Dunham raised Obama in Honolulu, Hawaii. In addition to Obama, Stanley is related to six US presidents: James Madison, Harry S. Truman, Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush.[56][57] He died in Honolulu, Hawaii, and is buried at the Punchbowl National Cemetery.

Madelyn Lee Payne Dunham (19222008)

Main article: Madelyn Dunham

Madelyn Dunham (nee Madelyn Lee Payne) was Obama's maternal grandmother who worked in banking and became vice president of a bank in Hawaii. Obama grew up with her and remembered that when he was a child, his grandmother "read me the opening lines of the Declaration of Independence and told me about the men and women who marched for equality because they believed those words put to paper two centuries ago should mean something."[25]

Charles Thomas Payne (19252014)

Main article: Charles T. Payne Barack Obama embraces his great-uncle Charles Payne, June 6, 2009.

Charles Thomas Payne is Madelyn Dunham's younger brother and Obama's great-uncle. He was born in 1925. Payne served during World War II in the U.S. Army 89th Infantry Division.[58] Obama has often described Payne's role in liberating the Ohrdruf forced labor camp.[59] There was brief media attention when Obama mistakenly identified the camp as Auschwitz during the campaign.[60] In 2009, Payne spoke about his war experience:

Ohrdruf was in that string of towns going across, south of Gotha and Erfurt. Our division was the first one in there. When we arrived there were no German soldiers anywhere around that I knew about. There was no fighting against the Germans, no camp guards. The whole area was overrun by people from the camp dressed in the most pitiful rags, and most of them were in a bad state of starvation.[61]

Payne appeared in the visitor's gallery at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, when his great-nephew was nominated for President.[62] He was the assistant director of the University of Chicago's Library.[59]

Ralph Dunham (19162012)

Ralph Dunham was Stanley Dunham's older brother and Obama's great-uncle, he served in the U.S. Army as an assignment and personnel officer during World War II. He landed at Normandy's Omaha Easy Red Beach on D-Day plus four, and moved with troops in the fighting through France, Italy and Germany.[63][64]

Eleanor Belle Dunham Berkebile (19322003)

Eleanor Dunham, Obama's great-aunt, was the younger sister of Stanley Armour Dunham and Ralph Dunham. Married to Ralph Lee Berkebile. She was the youngest daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson Dunham Sr. and his second wife, Martha Mae Stonehouse. She retired from civil service as an executive secretary.

Margaret Arlene Payne (19272014)

Margaret Arlene Payne, Obama's great-aunt, was the younger sister of Madelyn Dunham and Charles Payne. She was a professor of nutrition who taught at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, and at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (19801990). She wrote numerous research articles and two books.[65][66]

Leona McCurry (18971968)

Obama's family said that his maternal great-grandmother, Leona McCurry, was part Native American.[67] She reportedly held that as a "source of considerable shame" and "blanched whenever someone mentioned the subject and hoped to carry the secret to her grave."[67] But her daughter Madelyn Dunham (Obama's maternal grandmother) "would turn her head in profile to show off her beaked nose, which along with a pair of jet-black eyes, was offered as proof of Cherokee blood."[68] To date, no concrete evidence has surfaced of Cherokee heritage in the McCurry line.

Ruth Lucille Armour (19001926)

Obama's family said that his paternal great-grandmother, Ruth Dunham, died November 26, 1926, from ptomaine poisoning. Resided in Topeka, Kansas.[69]

Fulmoth Kearney (c.?18291878)

A maternal 3rd great-grandfather of Barack Obama, nicknamed "Fully."[70] Born circa 1829 in Moneygall, King's County, Ireland, he emigrated to Ohio via New York in 1850, making him the most recent immigrant on the maternal side of Barack Obama's family tree. Fulmoth married Charlotte Holloway and raised a family which included three daughters (including Mary Ann). She and two of her sisters married three Dunham brothers. Kearney and his wife are buried in Fairview Cemetery in Labette County, Kansas. Descendants placed a headstone there in 2014.[71] Around the same time, a photo of him was discovered.[72][70] Barack Obama visited Moneygall in 2011.[73] In 2014, "Barack Obama Plaza," a service station and visitor centre, was opened in Moneygall.[74][74] In 2015, a photograph of Kearney was discovered and made publicly available. In 2018, statues of Michelle and Barack were erected in Moneygall.[75]

Lolo Soetoro (19361987)

Main article: Lolo Soetoro

Lolo Soetoro, Javanese given name: Martodihardjo,[76][77] was the second husband of Ann Dunham (married on March 15, 1965)[78] and stepfather to Barack Obama. He is Maya Soetoro-Ng's father. After his divorce from Dunham, Soetoro married Erna Kustina. They had two children, Yusuf Aji Soetoro (b. 1981) and Rahayu Nurmaida Soetoro (b. 1984).[77]

Maya Soetoro-Ng (b. 1970)

Main article: Maya Soetoro-Ng

Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's half-sister, was born in Jakarta, Indonesia.[79] She has a half-brother and sister, Yusuf and Aya Soetoro, from her father's second marriage. She is married to Canadian-American Konrad Ng, with whom she has two daughters, Suhaila and Savita. Maya Soetoro-Ng is a teacher in Hawaii.[80]

Konrad Ng (b. 1974)

Konrad Ng is Barack Obama's brother-in-law. He is of Overseas Chinese descent,[81] and his parents are from Kudat and Sandakan, two small towns in Sabah, Malaysia. Ng and his younger brother, Perry, were born and raised in Burlington, Ontario Canada.[82] Perry Ng works for the University of Ottawa.[81] He married Maya Soetoro-Ng at the end of 2003 in Hawaii.[83] They have two daughters, Suhaila[84][85][86] and Savita.[80] Konrad Ng is a U.S. citizen.[87] He was an assistant professor at the University of Hawaii's Academy of Creative Media.[88] From 2011-2015 he was the Director of the Smithsonian's Asian Pacific American Program. Since 2016, he has been the Executive Director of The Shangri La Museum of Islamic Art, Culture & Design in Honolulu. He studied philosophy at McGill University and cultural studies at the University of Victoria before getting his PhD degree from University of Hawaii at Manoa.[89][90]

Ng studies "how minority and diaspora communities use cinema and digital media to engage in artistic and cultural representation and preservation, and community mobilization."[91] From 2011 to 2016, he served as director of the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.[91][92][93]

Robert Wolfley (18351895)

Robert Wolfley, born in 1835, is one of Obama's maternal third great-grandfathers. He served as a private in Company A, 145th Ohio Infantry during the American Civil War. He died July 17, 1895, and is buried in the Olathe Memorial Cemetery in Olathe, Kansas.[94][95]

John Punch

Main article: John Punch (slave)

According to's research in 2012, using a combination of historical documents and yDNA analysis, genealogists found that John Punch, the first documented African slave in the American British colonies, has been documented as likely an eleventh great-grandfather of Obama through his mother, Ann Dunham, and her Bunch ancestors.[96][52] With intermarriage, there were eventually both white and African-American lines of descent from Punch; some Bunch descendants were classified as white by the early 18th century. Other Bunch descendants were considered free people of color. Ralph Bunche, U.S. minister to the United Nations, is thought by historian Paul Heinegg to have likely been an African-American descendant of the Bunch family via South Carolina and Detroit, Michigan.[52][97]

Jonathan Singletary Dunham (16401724)

Main article: Jonathan Singletary Dunham

Jonathan Singletary Dunham, born in 1640 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was one of Obama's maternal eighth great-grandfathers and is his earliest ancestor known to be born in North America.[3][98][99]

Paternal relations

Obama's family in Kenya are members of the Luo people, the nation's second-largest ethnic group. Linguistically, Luo is one of the Nilotic languages. The Obama family is concentrated in the western Kenyan province of Nyanza.

Front row (left to right): Auma Obama (Barack's half-sister), Kezia Obama (Barack's stepmother), Sarah Hussein Onyango Obama (third wife of Barack's paternal grandfather), Zeituni Onyango (Barack's aunt)
Back row (left to right): Sayid Obama (Barack's uncle), Barack Obama, Abongo [Roy] Obama (Barack's half-brother), unidentified woman, Bernard Obama (Barack's half-brother), Abo Obama (Barack's half-brother)

Hussein Onyango Obama (c. 18951979)

Paternal grandfather to Barack Obama, he was born Onyango Obama.[100] (One source gives 18701975 as his dates of birth and death, possibly based on his tombstone in his home village.[101] Barack Obama relates finding in 1988 a British document, based on a 1928 ordinance, recording his grandfather as 35 years old. The date of the document was estimated to be about 1930, which would mean that his grandfather had been born around 1895.[102]) The Luo are given names related to the circumstances of their birth, and Onyango means "born in the early morning."

Onyango was the fifth son of his mother, Nyaoke, who was the first of the five wives of his father, Obama.[103] Barack Obama relates how his step-grandmother Granny Sarah (Sarah Onyango Obama) describes his grandfather: "Even from the time that he was a boy, your grandfather Onyango was strange. It is said of him that he had ants up his anus, because he could not sit still."[104] As a young man, Onyango learned to speak, read and write in English, the language of British colonial administration in Kenya.[105]

Onyango worked as a mission cook and as a local herbalist.[104] He joined the King's African Rifles during World War I.[106]

In 1949, Onyango spent at least six months in Kamiti Prison. He was probably tried in a magistrates' court on charges of sedition or being a member of a banned organization. Records do not survive; all such documentation was routinely destroyed after six years by the British colonial administration. He was tortured to extract information about the growing insurgency seeking the independence of Kenya.[107] In his memoir, Obama recounted family descriptions of his grandfather's shocking physical state when released from prison:

"When he returned to Alego he was very thin and dirty. He had difficulty walking, and his head was full of lice." For some time, he was too traumatized to speak about his experiences. His wife told his grandson Obama: "From that day on, I saw that he was now an old man."[105]

Onyango was permanently scarred, suffering pain and requiring assistance in moving until his death. Although previously he had worked closely with British colonists, Onyango became bitterly anti-British after his abuse.[108]

According to his third wife, Sarah, Onyango had converted from tribal religion to Catholicism early in life. When Seventh-day Adventist missionaries visited the Kendu Bay area many people were baptized into the church, including Onyango.[109] When he later converted to Islam, he took the first name Hussein. She said that he passed on the name of Hussein to his children, but not the religion.[110] Onyango is sometimes referred to as Mzee Hussein Onyango Obama. The word mzee (meaning "elder") is a Kenyan honorific. And to this day the Obama family in Kenya is divided between Seventh-day Adventists and Muslims.

Habiba Akumu Obama (c. 19182006)

Also known as Akumu Nyanjoga and Sje.[111][112][113][114] She was Barack Obama's paternal grandmother, and the second wife of Hussein Onyango Obama. She had three children with Onyango: daughters Sarah and Auma, and son Barack (Barack Obama's father).[115] Her father was named Njango or Njoga,[116] and she was born and raised in the Western Kenyan village of Karabondi.[114][117]

In his memoir Dreams from My Father, Obama wrote that Akumu was miserable in her marriage and abandoned Onyango Obama and her children with him. She subsequently married again and moved to Tanganyika, now Tanzania. Her name Akumu means "mysterious birth." Her mother conceived her after having given birth to another child and before resuming her menses. Akumu took the name Habiba upon her conversion to Islam in her second marriage, to Salmin Orinda, a Muslim from Wagwe, near Homa Hills, South Nyanza.[116] A photograph of her holding her son, Barack Sr., on her lap is on the cover of her grandson's memoir. (See image at right margin.)[118]

Sarah Obama (b. 1933)

Aunt of U.S. President Obama and elder sister of his father, daughter of Hussein Onyango and his second wife, Habiba Akumu Obama.[119] (She should not be confused with her stepmother Sarah Onyango Obama, also often called just Sarah Obama, the third wife of Onyango.)

Barack Obama Sr. (19361982)

Main article: Barack Obama Sr.

Barack Obama Sr., Barack Obama's father, was the son of Onyango and his second wife Habiba Akumu Obama. Educated in the US at the University of Hawai'i and Harvard University, he returned to Kenya, where he became an economist with the government. He served in the ministries of transportation and finance. Obama Sr. was married a total of three times, and he fathered a daughter and at least four sons in addition to Barack II.[120]

Hawa Auma Hussein

Aunt of U.S. President Obama and younger sister of his father, born to Hussein Onyango and second wife Habiba Akumu Obama.[119] She is the sole surviving full sibling of Barack Obama Sr.[121]

Sarah Onyango Obama (b. 1922)

Main article: Sarah Onyango Obama

Sarah Onyango Obama was the third wife of Obama's paternal grandfather.[122] She is known for short as Sarah Obama; she is sometimes referred to as Sarah Ogwel, Sarah Hussein Obama, or Sarah Anyango Obama.[123] She lives in Nyang'oma Kogelo village, 30 miles west of western Kenya's main town, Kisumu, on the edge of Lake Victoria.[124][125] (She should not be confused with her stepdaughter of the same name, Sarah Obama, a daughter of Onyango's second wife Akumu.)[126]

Although she is not a blood relation, Barack Obama calls her "Granny Sarah".[123][127] Sarah, who speaks Luo and only a few words of English, communicates with President Obama through an interpreter.

On July 4, 2008, Sarah Obama attended the United States Independence Day celebrations in Nairobi, hosted by Michael Ranneberger, the US ambassador in Kenya.[128]

During the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign, she protested attempts to portray Obama as a foreigner to the United States or as a Muslim, saying that while Obama's grandfather had been a Muslim, "In the world of today, children have different religions from their parents."[110] Sarah Obama is "a strong believer of the Islamic faith", in her words.[129]

In November 2014, Sarah Obama received an award from the United Nations for the work of an education foundation that she heads, as a part of Womens Entrepreneurship Day.[130]

Kezia Obama

Kezia "Grace" Obama (also known as Kezia Aoko)[131] was born c. 1940.[132][133]) She is Barack Obama Sr.'s first wife; she married him in Kenya in 1954 before he studied abroad in the United States. They had at least two children together: Abongo [Roy] and Auma; and she has also claimed Bernard and Abo Obama as sons by Barack Sr.

She lives in Bracknell, Berkshire, England.[134] On March 22, 2009, Kezia Obama made a guest appearance on the British television show Chris Moyles' Quiz Night.[135] Her sister, Jane, is the 'Auntie Jane' mentioned at the very start of Dreams from My Father; she telephoned Obama in the US in 1982 to tell him that his father had been killed in a car accident in Kenya.[136]

Malik Obama

Main article: Malik Obama

Barack Obama's half-brother, also known as Abongo or Roy, was born c. March 1958, the son of Barack Obama Sr. and his first wife, Kezia.[137] Born and raised in Nairobi, Kenya,[138] he earned a degree in accounting from the University of Nairobi.[139] The half brothers met for the first time in 1985[138] when Barack flew from Chicago to Washington, D.C., to visit him.[140] They were best men at each other's weddings.[138] The American Obama brought his wife Michelle to Kenya three years later, and they met with Malik again while meeting many other relatives for the first time.[141]

Malik lives in the Obamas' ancestral home, Nyang'oma Kogelo, a village of several hundred people, preferring its slow pace to that of the city.[138] He runs a small electronics shop a half-hour's drive outside of town.[138] Although much of the Obama family has dispersed throughout Kenya and overseas, most, including Malik Obama, still consider their rural village on the shores of Lake Victoria to be their true home. They feel that those who have left the village have become culturally "lost".[142] A frequent visitor to the US,[141] and a consultant in Washington, D.C., for several months each year,[138] Malik has dual citizenship in Kenya and the United States.[143]

During his brother's 2008 presidential campaign, Malik Obama was a spokesman for the extended Obama family in Kenya. He dealt with safety and privacy concerns arising from the increased attention from the press.[144]

Malik ran for governor of the Kenyan county of Siaya in 2013.[145] His campaign slogan was "Obama here, Obama there" in reference to his half-brother who was serving his second term as the President of the United States. Malik garnered a meager 2,792 votes, about 140,000 votes behind the eventual winner.[146] Prior to the 2016 United States presidential election, he stated that he supported Donald Trump, the candidate for the Republican Party.[147] He attended the third presidential debate as one of Trump's guests,[148] wears a MAGA hat and socializes with Charles C. Johnson.

Auma Obama

Auma Obama

Main article: Auma Obama

Barack Obama's half-sister, born c. 1960, to Kezia, his father's first wife.[149] As of July 2008, she was a development worker in Kenya.[150] She studied German at the University of Heidelberg from 1981 to 1987. After her graduation at Heidelberg, she went on for graduate studies at the University of Bayreuth, earning a PhD degree in 1996. Her dissertation was on the conception of labor in Germany and its literary reflections.[150]

Auma Obama has lived in London. In 1996 she married an Englishman, Ian Manners, although they have since divorced.[151] They have a daughter named Akinyi (b. 1997).[150][152] In 2011, Auma Obama was interviewed for Turk Pipkin's documentary Building Hope and was the subject of a German documentary film The Education of Auma Obama.

In 2017 Auma Obama was honoured with the fourth International TUV Rheinland Global Compact Award in Cologne.[153] At the award ceremony, she received the bronze sculpture Der Griff nach den Sternen (Reaching for the stars), solely made for the award, by artist Hannes Helmke.[154]

Abo Obama

Said to be Barack Obama's half-brother, he is also known as Samson Obama,[155] and was born in 1968 to Kezia Obama. In Dreams from My Father, Obama wrote that his Obama relatives doubt that Abo and Bernard are the biological sons of Barack Obama Sr. Abo manages a mobile phone shop in Kenya.[156]

Ruth (Baker) Ndesandjo

Born Ruth Beatrice Baker in the United States around 1937, the daughter of Maurice Joseph Baker and Ida Baker of Newton, Massachusetts, who are of Lithuanian Jewish descent.[157] Ruth Baker was a 1954 graduate of Brookline High School in Brookline, Massachusetts, and a 1958 graduate of Simmons College in Boston with a degree in business.[157] She was a suburban elementary school teacher when she met and began dating Barack Sr. in Cambridge in June 1964, a month before his return to Kenya in August 1964.[157] She followed Obama Sr. back to Kenya five weeks later, and married him in Kenya in a civil ceremony on December 24, 1964.[157] She later became a private kindergarten director in Kenya.[158] She had two sons with Barack Obama Sr.: Mark and David. She and Barack Sr. separated in 1971 and divorced about 1973. Since she remarried when her sons were young, they took their stepfather's surname, Ndesandjo, as their own. Her third son, Joseph Ndesandjo, was born c. 1980 in her second marriage.

Mark Okoth Obama Ndesandjo

Barack Obama's half-brother, born c. 1965, son of Barack Obama Sr. and his third wife Ruth Baker.[159] Mark Ndesandjo runs an Internet company called WorldNexus that advises Chinese corporations how best to reach international customers.[160] Mark was educated in the US, graduating from Brown University; he studied physics at Stanford University, and received an MBA degree from Emory University.[161]

He has lived in Shenzhen, China, since 2002.[161] Through his mother, he is Jewish.[162] He is married to Liu Xuehua (also spelled Liu Zue Hua in some reports), a Chinese woman from Henan Province.[163][164] He is an accomplished pianist and has performed in concert.[165]

In 2009, Mark Ndesandjo published a semi-autobiographical novel, Nairobi to Shenzhen: A Novel of Love in the East.[166][167] He published a memoir in 2013, entitled, Cultures: My Odyssey of Self-Discovery.[168] In it, he accused their father Barack Sr. of abuse.[169]

David Ndesandjo (c.?1967c.?1987)

Barack Obama's half-brother (also known as David Opiyo Obama), son of Barack Obama Sr. and his third wife, Ruth Baker, an American. He died in a motorcycle accident several years after his father's death in a car accident.[170][171]

George Hussein Onyango Obama

Youngest half-brother of Barack Obama, born c. 1982, son of Barack Obama Sr.[172] and Jael Otieno. (She has since moved to Atlanta, Georgia as a full-time resident.)[173][174] George was six months old when his father died in an automobile accident, after which he was raised in Nairobi by his mother and a French stepfather. His mother took him to South Korea for two years while she was working there.[173] Returning to Kenya, George Obama "slept rough for several years,"[175] until his aunt gave him a six-by-eight foot corrugated metal shack in the Nairobi slum of Huruma Flats.[173]

As of August 2008, George Obama was studying to become a mechanic.[173] He received little attention until featured in an article in the Italian-language edition of Vanity Fair in August 2008 during the US presidential campaign. This portrayed him as living in poverty, shame, and obscurity.[176] The article quoted George Obama as saying that he lived "on less than a dollar a month" and said that he "does not mention his famous half-brother in conversation" out of shame at his own poverty.[177] In later interviews, George contradicted this account. In an interview with The Times, he "said that he was furious at subsequent reports that he had been abandoned by the Obama family and that he was filled with shame about living in a slum."[174]

He told The Times, "Life in Huruma is good." George Obama said that he expects no favors, that he was supported by relatives, and that reports he lived on a dollar a month were "all lies by people who don't want my brother to win."[174] He told The Telegraph that he was inspired by his half-brother.[173] According to Time, George "has repeatedly denied... that he feels abandoned by Obama."[178] CNN quoted him as saying, "I was brought up well. I live well even now. The magazines, they have exaggerated everything I think I kind of like it here. There are some challenges, but maybe it is just like where you come from, there are the same challenges."[176] George Obama and the British journalist Damien Lewis published George's story in a 2011 book called Homeland.[179][180] George also appeared in the 2012 film, 2016: Obama's America, an anti-Obama documentary.[181]

Omar Okech Obama

At times using a variation of the name of his father, Onyango Obama,[182][183] Omar Okech Obama is a half-uncle of Barack Obama.[184] Born on June 3, 1944, in Nyang'oma Kogelo, he is the eldest son of Onyango and his third wife, Sarah Obama. He moved to the United States in October 1963 when he was 17 years old as part of Kenya president Tom Mboya's Airlift Africa project, to send promising Kenyan students to the US for education, particularly undergraduate and graduate school.[182][185] Once he arrived in the country, his half-brother, Barack Obama Sr., found him a place at a boys' school then known as Browne & Nichols, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[182] He later dropped out of school and changed his name to O. Onyango Obama.[182] He has operated a liquor store in Framingham, where he resided as of March 2011.[182][186] Barack Obama lived with Onyango in the 1980s while a student at Harvard Law School in Cambridge.[187]

Omar Okech Obama was subject to a deportation order in 1989.[188] After an unsuccessful appeal, he was given a new deportation order in 1992.[188][189] He was arrested on August 24, 2011, for driving under the influence, or DUI,[188] and was held in jail until September 9, 2011, on a federal immigration warrant.[183][190] The Boston Herald reported in August 2011 that Obama had had a valid Social Security card "for at least 19 years."[191] On November 30, 2012, the Board of Immigration Appeals remanded the immigration case to the Executive Office for Immigration Review for reconsideration of the original order of deportation, which was issued in 1986 and re-issued in 1992.[192]

An immigration judge ruled on January 30, 2013, that Onyango Obama would receive a deportation hearing.[185] Onyango's attorneys said that his defense at the December 3, 2013, deportation hearing would be a reliance on the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, because Onyango had resided in the U.S. since before January 1, 1972, the cutoff date of the 1986 amnesty.[193] At the hearing, Immigration Judge Leonard I. Shapiro ruled that Onyango was eligible for permanent residence and would receive a green card.[194]

Zeituni Onyango (19522014)

Zeituni Onyango, half-aunt of Barack Obama,[195] was born May 29, 1952, in Kenya,[196] Onyango is referred to as "Aunti Zeituni" in Obama's memoir Dreams from My Father.[197] She entered the US in 2000 on a temporary visa with her son who was going to school; she applied in 2002 for political asylum due to unrest in Kenya and ethnic conflict. This was denied in 2004, but she remained in the country illegally. Her presence was leaked to the media during Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. She was granted asylum in 2010. She died on April 7, 2014, from complications caused by cancer and respiratory problems.[198]

Michelle Obama's extended family

Marian Robinson (second from right) makes an appearance with the rest of the immediate family of Barack Obama on the South Portico of the White House during festivities of the 2009 White House Easter Egg Roll

Barack Obama has called his wife Michelle Obama "the most quintessentially American woman I know."[4] Her family is of African-American heritage, descendants of Africans and Europeans of the colonial era and antebellum eras.[4] Michelle Obama's family history traces from colonists and slavery in the South to Reconstruction to the Great Migration to northern cities, in her family's case, Cleveland and Chicago. Each of her four grandparents was multiracial.[199] Some of Michelle's relatives still reside in South Carolina. Extended family from her mother's Shields ancestors also reside in Georgia and throughout the South.

Jim Robinson

Michelle's earliest known relative on her father's side is her great-great grandfather Jim Robinson, born in the 1850s, who was an American slave on the Friendfield Plantation in Georgetown, South Carolina in the Low Country, where African Americans developed as the Gullah people and culture. The family believes that after the Civil War, he worked as a Friendfield sharecropper for the rest of his life. He is said to have been buried there in an unmarked grave.[4]

Jim married twice, first to a woman named Louiser, with whom he had two sons, Gabriel and Fraser, Michelle Obama's great-grandfather. A daughter was born to the family, but her name has not been discovered, and she is believed to have died as a child. His second marriage to Rose Ella Cohen produced six more children. Fraser had an arm amputated as a result of a boyhood injury. He worked as a shoemaker, a newspaper salesman, and in a lumber mill.[4] Carrie Nelson, Gabriel Robinson's daughter, is the keeper of family lore and the oldest living Robinson at 80 years old in 2008.[4]

At least three of Michelle Obama's great-uncles served in the military of the United States. One aunt moved to Princeton, New Jersey, where she worked as a maid. She cooked Southern-style meals for Michelle and her brother Craig, when they were students at Princeton University.

Melvinia Shields

The earliest known relative on her mother's side is her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields (1844-1938), who was held as a slave on a farm in Clayton County, North Georgia. Her master was Henry Walls Shields, who had a 200-acre farm near Rex. He would have worked along with his slaves.[199] Melvinia became pregnant at about age 15 and had a biracial son, Dolphus T. Shields, born into slavery about 1860. Melvinia did not talk to relatives about his father.[200] Based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said the father was likely 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of Melvinia's master.[199] After the Civil War, Dolphus Shields moved to Birmingham, Alabama. Charles later became a teacher and married a white woman. Michelle Obama's extended family has said that people didn't talk about slavery time while they were growing up.[199] Michelle Obama's distant ancestry also includes Irish and other European roots.[201]

On June 26, 2012, a monument to Shields was erected in Rex, with an inscription summarizing her life and "a five-generation journey that began in oppression" resulting in her descendant becoming First Lady of the United States.[202] A year later, the monument was vandalized and knocked from its base, but was quickly replaced.[202]

Marian Lois Robinson

Main article: Marian Shields Robinson

Marian Lois Robinson (born Marian Lois Shields, July 30, 1937), is descended from Dolphus Shields and his wife. She is now widowed, but had married Michelle's father, Fraser Robinson, on October 27, 1960.[203][204] Robinson was formerly a secretary at Spiegel catalog and a bank. While Michelle and Barack Obama were campaigning in 2008, Robinson tended the Obamas' young children. She continued to help care for them while living in the White House as part of the First Family;[205] she was the first live-in grandmother since Elivera M. Doud during the Eisenhower administration.[206] Some media outlets dubbed Robinson as the "First Granny".[206][207] Marian took Sasha and Malia to school daily.[208]

Fraser C. Robinson III

Michelle Obama's father, born August 1, 1935, died March 6, 1991, married Michelle's mother, Marian Shields, on October 27, 1960.[204][209] Robinson was a pump worker at the City of Chicago water plant.[4]

Craig Robinson

Main article: Craig Robinson (basketball)

Craig Robinson, Michelle Obama's brother, was born in 1962. From 2008 until 2014, he served as head coach of men's basketball at Oregon State University.[210]

Fraser Robinson Jr.

Michelle Obama's paternal grandfather was born on August 24, 1912, in Georgetown, South Carolina, and died on November 9, 1996, aged 84. He was a good student and orator but moved from South Carolina to Chicago during the Great Migration to find better work and living conditions than in the South, where Jim Crow had been imposed and blacks were disfranchised. He became a worker for the United States Postal Service. He married LaVaughn Johnson. When he retired, they moved back to South Carolina.[4]

LaVaughn Dolores Johnson

Michelle Obama's paternal grandmother (February 6, 1915 September 17, 2002) and wife of Fraser Robinson Jr. She was born in Chicago, Illinois, to James Preston Johnson (18801920?) and Phoebe (18791920?).

Robbie Shields Terry

Robbie Shields Terry (born Robbie Lee Shields; July 3, 1908 June 1, 1983) was Michelle Obama's great-aunt: her mother's father's sister. In the 1940 census, she was listed as head of household,[211] with Marian Shields listed as niece.[212] Michelle Obama, in her memoir, Becoming, introduces Robbie and her husband, Terry, in the first chapter.[213] Her nuclear family moved into a small apartment on the second floor in their house while she was still a young child.[214] Robbie was Michelle's piano teacher[215] as well as nearest neighbor. When she died, Robbie, a widow, left the house to her mother, Marian, and father, Fraser Robinson, who moved downstairs.[216] Subsequently, Michelle moved into the second floor apartment while working at the law firm Sidley & Austin.[217] When Barack Obama settled in Chicago after graduating law school, he moved into this same apartment.[218]

Capers Funnye

Main article: Capers Funnye

Capers C. Funnye Jr. is Michelle Obama's first cousin once removed: his mother, Verdelle Robinson Funnye (born Verdelle Robinson; August 22, 1930 April 16, 2000), was a sister of Michelle Obama's paternal grandfather, Fraser Robinson Jr. He is 12 years older, and Funnye and Obama grew to know each other as adults in Chicago, where both were involved in community organizing, along with Barack Obama. He is one of America's most prominent African-American rabbis, known for acting as a bridge between mainstream Jewry and African American Jews. He converted to Judaism after 1970, during years of activism when he regarded Christianity as having been imposed on slaves.[219]


  • Key:
    • Underscored: ?Now or once a member of Barack Obama's household.
    • Personal name bolded: ?Living
  • Note: Every link in this index is to entries in this article

By last name

  • Baker
    • Ruth
  • Dunham
    • Ann
    • Jonathan
    • Madelyn
    • Ralph
    • Stanley
  • Funnye
    • Capers
  • Ndesandjo
    • Mark
    • Ruth
  • Ng
    • Konrad
    • Maya
  • Obama
    • Abo
    • Auma
    • Barack
    • Barack Sr.
    • Bernard
    • George
    • Habiba Akumu
    • Hawa Auma
    • Hussein Onyango
    • Kezia
    • Malia
    • Malik
    • Michelle
    • Omar Onyango
    • Sarah (aunt)
    • Sarah Onyango
    • Sasha
    • Sayid
    • Yusuf
  • Onyango
    • Zeituni
  • Payne
    • Charles
    • Madelyn
    • Margaret
  • Robinson
    • Craig
    • Fraser III
    • Fraser Jr.
    • Jim
    • Marian
    • Michelle
  • Soetoro
    • Lolo
  • Soetoro-Ng
    • Maya
  • Wolfley
    • Robert

By first name

  • Abo Obama
  • Ann Dunham
  • Auma Obama
  • Barack Obama
  • Barack Obama Sr.
  • Bernard Obama
  • Capers Funnye
  • Charles Payne
  • Craig Robinson
  • David Ndsandjo
  • Fraser Robinson III
  • Fraser Robinson Jr.
  • George Obama
  • Habiba Akumu Obama
  • Hawa Auma Obama
  • Hussein Onyango Obama
  • Jim Robinson
  • Jonathan Dunham
  • Konrad Ng
  • Lolo Soetoro
  • Madelyn Dunham
  • Malia Obama
  • Malik Obama
  • Margaret Payne
  • Marian Robinson
  • Maya Soetoro?Ng
  • Michelle Obama
  • Omar Obama?/?Onyango Obama (uncle)
  • Onyango Obama (grandfather)
  • Ralph Dunham
  • Ruth Ndesandjo
  • Sarah Obama (aunt)
  • Sarah Onyango
  • Sasha Obama
  • Sayid Obama
  • Stanley Dunham
  • Yusuf Obama
  • Zeituni Onyango

See also

  • New England Historic Genealogical Society
  • List of African-American firsts


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Retrieved August 23, 2008. ^ a b c Crilly, Rob (August 22, 2008). "Life is good in my Nairobi slum, says Barack Obama's younger brother". The Times. London. Retrieved August 23, 2008. ^ Being Obama's Brother, by George Obama, Newsweek, January 2, 2010 ^ a b McKenzie, David (August 23, 2008). "Behind the Scenes: Meet George Obama". CNN. Retrieved October 26, 2008. ^ Pisa, Nick (August 20, 2008). "Barack Obama's 'lost' brother found in Kenya". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2008. ^ Wadhams, Nick (October 7, 2008). "Corsi in Kenya: Obama's Nation Boots Obama Nation Author". Time. Retrieved January 31, 2009. ^ D'Souza, Dinesh. "How I became George Obama's 'brother'," Fox News: Opinion, August 16, 2012, Retrieved 2012-08-17 ^ Obama, George, with Damien Lewis. Homeland: An Extraordinary Story of Hope and Survival, Simon and Schuster, 2011 ^ Bond, Paul (July 9, 2012). "Barack Obama's Brother to Make Film Debut in Anti-Obama Documentary". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 28, 2012. ^ a b c d e Sacchetti, Maria; Dan Adams (August 31, 2011). "Obama's uncle is called a fugitive". Boston Globe. Boston. Archived from the original on November 4, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2011. ^ a b "Packie owner praises Prez's troubled uncle". Boston Herald. August 31, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2011. ^ "The Obama Family Tree". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, 2007. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. ^ a b Sacchetti, Maria (January 30, 2013). "President Obama's uncle ordered to face deportation hearing Dec. 3 by immigration judge". Boston Globe. Retrieved January 31, 2013. ^ Bone, James; Philp, Catherine (August 29, 2011). "Barack Obama's uncle has been arrested and held as illegal immigrant". The Australian. ^ Blake, Aaron & Juliet Eilperin. After denial, White House now says Obama lived with uncle, The Washington Post, December 5, 2013. ^ a b c Sacchetti, Maria (September 9, 2011). "Obama's uncle quietly released from jail". Boston Globe. Boston. Retrieved September 9, 2011. ^ Lavoie, Denise (August 29, 2011). "Official: Obama uncle here illegally since 1992". Grand Junction Daily Sentinel. ^ Zaremba, John (September 10, 2011). "President's uncle released by feds, but must 'check in'". Boston Herald. Boston. Retrieved January 31, 2013. ^ Dave Wedge. "President Obama's uncle had Social Security ID". ^ Sacchetti, Maria (December 3, 2012). "President Obama's uncle wins new bid to try to stay in US". Boston Globe. Retrieved December 13, 2012. ^ Zaremba, John (January 30, 2013). "President's uncle fights for permanent residency". Boston Herald. Boston. Retrieved January 31, 2013. ^ Sacchetti, Maria (December 3, 2013). "Obama's uncle allowed to remain in US, judge rules". Boston Globe. Boston. Retrieved December 3, 2013. ^ "First read, MSNBC". MSNBC. October 24, 2012. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2013. ^ "Barack Obama's Kenyan aunt 'living in Boston housing project'". The Telegraph. London. October 30, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2012. ^ "Boston Housing Authority 'flabbergastered' Barack Obama's aunt living in Southie". October 31, 2008. Retrieved March 24, 2013. ^ Frizell, Sam. "Barack Obama's Aunt Has Died", Time, April 8, 2014. ^ a b c d Rachel L. Swarns, "Meet Your Cousin, the First Lady: A Family Story, Long Hidden", The New York Times, June 16, 2012 ^ Swarns, Rachel L.; Kantor, Jodi (October 7, 2009). "In First Lady's Roots, a Complex Path From Slavery". The New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2009. ^ Produced by Meghan Louttit/The New York Times (June 22, 2012). "The First Family: A New Glimpse of Michelle Obama's White Ancestors Interactive Feature". The New York Times. Southern States (US). Retrieved December 14, 2012. ^ a b Bee, Trisha (June 11, 2013). "Monument to Michelle Obama's ancestor knocked down". ^ Taylor Marsh (August 25, 2008). "Political Analysis, National Security and Breaking News". Taylor Marsh. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2009. ^ a b Lia LoBello (January 2, 2008). "First Families: Radar introduces you to the next president's relatives". Radar Online. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009. ^ Rachel L. Swarns (January 9, 2009). "Obama's Mother-in-Law to Move Into the White House". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2009. ^ a b "Will Obama mum-in-law make it a family affair in the White House?". Agence France-Presse. November 22, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2009. ^ Philip Sherwell (November 8, 2008). "Michelle Obama persuades First Granny to join new White House team". The Telegraph (UK). London. Retrieved January 9, 2009. ^ "'First granny' embraces life in D.C". Politico. Retrieved September 12, 2011. ^ "RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Dowling Family Genealogy". Retrieved January 31, 2009. ^ "Oregon State University Beavers: Craig Robinson bio". Archived from the original on November 19, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012. ^ Smolenyak, Megan. "Ancestors of Michelle Obama in the 1940 Census". HuffPost. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2018. ^ "Robbie Shields, Ward 6, Chicago, Chicago City, Cook, Illinois, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 103-380, sheet 3B, line 60, family 56, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA digital publication T627". Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007, RG 29. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2012, roll 933. Retrieved March 14, 2018. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.3. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.6. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.8. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.90. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.95. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Obama, Michelle (2018). Becoming (First ed.). New York: Crown. p.130. ISBN978-1-5247-6313-8. ^ Weiss, Anthony (September 2, 2008). "Michelle Obama Has a Rabbi in Her Family". The Forward. Retrieved October 9, 2008.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Obama family.
  • "The Mystery of Michelle Obama's Roots" (Real Clear Politics)
  • "Fashionable first daughters, Malia and Sasha" (New York Daily News news photos)
  • Barack Obama's Family Tree Photo Essays TIME
  • "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible," by David Maraniss
  • Barack Obama's Branch-y Family Tree by Jake Tapper
  • "Obama Family Tree" series, by Scott Fornek
  • "Notes on the Ancestry of Senator Barack Hussein Obama Jr.," by Gary Boyd Roberts
  • "Obama, Clinton and McCain have some famous relations," by The Associated Press
  • "Tracking Michelle Obama's Slave Roots," by Joe Johns and Justine Redman
  • Satirical Onion article about Obama son misinterpreted as fact
  • "Malia Obama collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
  • "Sasha Obama collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
  • "President Barack Obama's Roots" by Megan Smolenyak
  • "Michelle Obama's Roots" by Megan Smolenyak
  • "Obama's Irish family links by RTE
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Barack Obama
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